Mitochondria dynamics in the aged mice eye and the role in the RPE phagocytosis

Exp Eye Res. 2021 Oct 21:108800. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108800. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAging is a predominant risk factor for various eye diseases. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly, and its etiology remains unclear. Fragmented and dysfunctional mitochondria are associated with age-related diseases. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a polarized cell layer that functions in visual pigment recycling and degeneration, is suspected as the primary region site of AMD. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and RPE aging. Compared to young mice, aged pigmented mice (C57BL/6J, 12-month-old) exhibit decreased visual function without retinal thinning. Consistently, the rhodopsin expression level decreased in the outer segment of aged mice. Moreover, the cell volume of the RPE increased in aged animals. Interestingly, the expression of mitochondria dynamics-related proteins, including Drp1, was altered in the RPE-choroid complex but not in the neural retina after aging. Electron microscopy revealed that mitochondrial size decreased and cristae width increased in aged RPE. The photoreceptor outer segment (POS) treatment of ARPE-19 cells causes Drp1 activation. Furthermore, pharmacological suppression of mitochondrial fission improved the phagocytosis of the POS. These findings indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction and fission in RPE impede phagocytosis and cause retardat...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: Currently there remains uncertainty whether PBM treatment is beneficial in slowing progression of non-exudative macular degeneration. There is a need for further well-designed controlled trials assessing dosimetry, powered for both effectiveness and safety outcomes. Consideration should be given to the adoption of agreed clinical outcome measures and patient-based outcome measures for AMD.PMID:34097768 | DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD013029.pub2
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Amino Acids. 2021 Apr 19. doi: 10.1007/s00726-021-02981-1. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe retina is one of the most energy-demanding tissues in the human body. Photoreceptors in the outer retina rely on nutrient support from the neighboring retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a monolayer of epithelial cells that separate the retina and choroidal blood supply. RPE dysfunction or cell death can result in photoreceptor degeneration, leading to blindness in retinal degenerative diseases including some inherited retinal degenerations and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In addition to having ready access to rich nutrien...
Source: Amino Acids - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Source Type: research
Purpose of review This review explores metabolic syndrome (MetS) as a risk factor that accelerates aging in retinal neurons and may contribute to the neurodegeneration seen in glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Recent findings Both animal model experiments and epidemiologic studies suggest that metabolic stress may lead to aberrant regulation of a number of cellular pathways that ultimately lead to premature aging of the cell, including those of a neuronal lineage. Summary GON and AMD are each leading causes of irreversible blindness worldwide. Aging is a signi...
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Tags: TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH: Edited by Jason Hsu and Sunir J. Garg Source Type: research
This article expresses sentiments regarding medical technology and human longevity that we'd all like to see more of in the mainstream media. At some point, it will come to be seen by the average person as basically sensible to work towards minimizing the tide of suffering and death caused aging and age-related disease. It has been, in hindsight, a strange thing to live in a world in which most people were reflexively opposed to that goal. Death and aging constitute a mystery. Some of us die more quickly. We often ask about it as children, deny it in youth, and reluctantly come to accept it as adults. Aging is uni...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
The objective of this study is to quantify the overall and cancer type-specific risks of subsequent primary cancers (SPCs) among adult-onset cancer survivors by first primary cancer (FPC) types and sex. Among 1,537,101 survivors (mean age, 60.4 years; 48.8% women), 156,442 SPC cases and 88,818 SPC deaths occurred during 11,197,890 person-years of follow-up (mean, 7.3 years). Among men, the overall risk of developing any SPCs was statistically significantly higher for 18 of the 30 FPC types, and risk of dying from any SPCs was statistically significantly higher for 27 of 30 FPC types as compared with risks in the general po...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In this study, we used markers to monitor the formation of SGs in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, in addition to acute heat stress, SG formation could also be triggered by dietary changes, such as starvation and dietary restriction (DR). We found that HSF-1 is required for the SG formation in response to acute heat shock and starvation but not DR, whereas the AMPK-eEF2K signaling is required for starvation and DR-induced SG formation but not heat shock. Moreover, our data suggest that this AMPK-eEF2K pathway-mediated SG formation is required for lifespan extension by DR, but dispensable for the longevity by reduced ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In this study, AT1-AAs were detected in the sera of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and the positive rate was 44.44% vs. 17.46% in non-PAD volunteers. In addition, analysis showed that AT1-AAs level was positively correlated with PAD. To reveal the causal relationship between AT1-AAs and vascular aging, an AT1-AAs-positive rat model was established by active immunization. The carotid pulse wave velocity was higher, and the aortic endothelium-dependent vasodilatation was attenuated significantly in the immunized rats. Morphological staining showed thickening of the aortic wall. Histological examination showe...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Authors: Wei Q, Hu W, Lou Q, Yu J Abstract Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness and is becoming a global crisis, with the number of affected people expected to reach 288 million by 2040 worldwide. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) performs a number of highly diverse functions that are essential to maintaining the normal health and function of the retina. Alterations to retinal metabolism and remodeling are an early feature of AMD. The pathology of AMD is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitophagy is vital to promote a metabolic shift towards glycolysis that is required for...
Source: Discovery Medicine - Category: Research Tags: Discov Med Source Type: research
In conclusion, proline is an important nutrient that supports RPE metabolism and the metabolic demand of the retina.
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Metabolism Source Type: research
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