Cerebral Venous Thrombosis Developing after COVID-19 Vaccination: VITT, VATT, TTS, and More

Semin Thromb Hemost DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1736168Despite the huge efforts globally underway for preventing or limiting the spread of severe acute respiratory coronavirus disease 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak appears still virtually unstoppable. As for many other infectious diseases, COVID-19 vaccination has now become crucial for limiting viral spread, especially for averting hospitalizations, need for intensive care, and fatal outcome. Nonetheless, as for other vaccines, COVID-19 vaccination is not completely free from side effects. Among the adverse events that have been reported after receiving COVID-19 vaccination, special emphasis has been given to an unexpected number of thrombocytopenic episodes with or without thrombotic complications, especially in recipients of adenovirus-based COVID-19 vaccines. Along with a specific clinical presentation, encompassing “atypical” thrombosis (especially cerebral venous [sinus] thrombosis, CVT) more prevalent in young female subjects, this new syndrome called vaccine-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (VITT) is characterized by, and thereby diagnosed for, the presence of three paradigmatic laboratory abnormalities, i.e., low platelet count (0.5 mg/L), accompanied by a positive test for anti-PF4 (platelet factor 4) antibodies assayed with ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) techniques. Timely identification of these important abnormalities by both clinicians and l...
Source: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

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