Differential Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Active Tuberculosis: A Key to a Successful Tuberculosis Control Strategy

As an ancient infectious disease, tuberculosis (TB) is still the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent worldwide. Latent TB infection (LTBI) has been recognized as the largest source of new TB cases and is one of the biggest obstacles to achieving the aim of the End TB Strategy. The latest data indicate that a considerable percentage of the population with LTBI and the lack of differential diagnosis between LTBI and active TB (aTB) may be potential reasons for the high TB morbidity and mortality in countries with high TB burdens. The tuberculin skin test (TST) has been used to diagnose TB for> 100 years, but it fails to distinguish patients with LTBI from those with aTB and people who have received Bacillus Calmette–Guérin vaccination. To overcome the limitations of TST, several new skin tests and interferon-gamma release assays have been developed, such as the Diaskintest, C-Tb skin test, EC-Test, and T-cell spot of the TB assay, QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube, QuantiFERON-TB Gold-Plus, LIAISON QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus test, and LIOFeron TB/LTBI. However, these methods cannot distinguish LTBI from aTB. To investigate the reasons why all these methods cannot distinguish LTBI from aTB, we have explained the concept and definition of LTBI and expounded on the immunological mechanism of LTBI in this review. In addition, we have outlined the research status, future directions, and challenges of LTBI differential diagnosis, including novel biomarkers d...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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SPRING HOUSE, PENNSYLVANIA, December 3, 2021 – The Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson &Johnson today announced new TREMFYA® (guselkumab) efficacy and safety data from the Phase 3b COSMOS trial published in Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases (ARD), evaluating this selective interleukin (IL)-23 inhibitor in adults with active psoriatic arthritis (PsA) who demonstrated inadequate efficacy or intolerance to tumor necrosis factor inhibition (TNFi).1 Results showed significantly higher proportions of patients treated with TREMFYA had improvement in joint signs and symptoms and complete skin clearance versus ...
Source: Johnson and Johnson - Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Innovation Source Type: news
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Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important problem among children in the United States and throughout the world. There is no diagnostic reference standard for latent tuberculosis infection (also referred to as tuberculosis infection [TBI]). The tuberculin skin test (TST) has many limitations, including difficulty in administration and interpretation, the need for a return visit by the patient, and false-positive results caused by cross-reaction with Mycobacterium bovis –bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccines and many nontuberculous mycobacteria. Interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) are blood tests that use antigens specific...
Source: PEDIATRICS - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
Condition:   Tuberculosis Interventions:   Biological: RUTI® vaccine;   Biological: Placebo Sponsors:   Archivel Farma S.L.;   Fundació Institut Germans Trias i Pujol Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
In this study, we performedO-mannosylated protein analysis in BCG bacteria using gel-based and gel-free approaches. In total, 1,670 hexosylated peptides derived from 754 mannosylated proteins were identified. Furthermore, 20 novel protein products supported by 78 unique peptides not annotated in the BCG database were detected. Additionally, the translational start sites of 384 proteins were confirmed, and 78 proteins were validated through the extension of translational start sites based on N-terminus-derived peptides. The bioinformatic analysis of theO-mannosylated proteins was performed and the expression profiles of fou...
Source: IUBMB Life - Category: Research Authors: Tags: RESEARCH COMMUNICATION Source Type: research
Conclusions: Following legislation of sanitary measures for the COVID-19 pandemic in Portugal, increased rates of positive tuberculosis screenings were contrasted by a decrease in the diagnoses of LT, which may reflect a collateral protective effect on the rates of tuberculosis infection.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacterial diseases Source Type: research
Conclusions: COPD patients who suffered from TB in the past were more likely to belong to an exacerbator phenotype (GOLD Group C or D) and experienced a propensity for higher mortality.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacterial diseases Source Type: research
Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2021 Nov 24. doi: 10.1007/s12010-021-03760-0. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a respiratory pathogen that causes tuberculosis (TB). There are a large number of proteins that are involved in the pathogenesis of TB. Stimulating the immune response against TB is very important to clear the pathogens from host. In the present study, an immunoinformatics conduit is used for designing an epitope based chimeric vaccine against TB. Enhanced intracellular survival (EIS) protein from Mtb is used for designing the chimeric vaccine. One B cell epitope, 8 cytotoxic T lymphocyte...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Source Type: research
For those who've volunteered or worked in settings where there is a higher than average risk of tuberculosis, have you considered getting or gotten the TB vaccine? What are some risks and drawbacks of getting the vaccine? Where could one get the TB vaccine? I understand that it's not common to see the TB vaccine administered in the US. I've read that the TB vaccine might lead to a positive TB skin test results.
Source: Student Doctor Network - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Pre-Medical (MD) Source Type: forums
In cultures of peritoneal macrophages (MP) of male BALB/c mice infected withMycobacterium tuberculosis from the BCG vaccine, the expression of CD1, CD14, CD25, CD30, CD35, and CD95 receptors was studiedin vitro 3 months after infection. In MP cultures from intact and infected mice, mononuclear MP predominated (96 and 92%, respectively). Bi- and trinuclear MP in MP cultures from control and infected mice constituted 4 and 8.3% of all MP, respectively. In the cultures of both groups, no obvious correlations between the number of MP expressing CD-receptors and number of nuclei in these cells were found, but the expression of ...
Source: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine - Category: Biology Source Type: research
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