mRNA Vaccines in the COVID-19 Pandemic and Beyond

Annu Rev Med. 2021 Oct 20. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-042420-112725. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerged in China in December 2019 and quickly spread around the globe, killing more than 3 million people and causing a severe economic crisis. This extraordinary situation prompted entities in government, industry, and academia to work together at unprecedented speed to develop safe and effective vaccines. Indeed, vaccines of multiple types have been generated in record time, and many have been evaluated in clinical trials. Of these, messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines have emerged as lead candidates due to their speed of development and high degree of safety and efficacy. To date, two mRNA vaccines have received approval for human use, providing proof of the feasibility of this next-generation vaccine modality. This review gives a detailed overview about the types of mRNA vaccines developed for SARS-CoV-2, discusses and compares preclinical and clinical data, gives a mechanistic overview about immune responses generated by mRNA vaccination, and speculates on the challenges and promising future of this emergent vaccine platform. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.PMID:34669432 | DOI:10.1146/annurev-med-042420-112725
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - Category: General Medicine Authors: Source Type: research

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AbstractMore than 12 months have passed since the World Health Organization (WHO) declared Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19), caused by the SARS-CoV2 virus, to be a pandemic on 11 March 2020. The entire world scientific community agrees that at this time vaccine is the most promising weapon to combat the infection and the severity of the disease. According to the document “Draft landscape of COVID-19 candidate vaccines” by WHO, 272 vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 virus are in development, although only four of these, produced by Pfizer-BioNTech (Pfizer, Inc. and BioNTech), Moderna, AstraZeneca, and Janssen companie...
Source: Dermatology and Therapy - Category: Dermatology Source Type: research
In this study, we conducted a population-based age-stratified serological study to understand the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia. Out of 594 participants who were recruited from 29 August to 30 December 2020, just before the vaccination rollout program in Saudi Arabia, about 157 were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2, indicating an estimated seropositivity rate of 26%. Although no significant difference in seropositivity was seen between male and female participants, we found that lower seroprevalence was associated with the younger (below 18 years old) and older populations (older than 56 years) compar...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Conclusions: Our results highlight the necessity of scientific and patient organizations in taking joint action to increase awareness on health-related issues during the pandemic and to provide accurate and up-to-date guidance for PwMS. Online information and communications technology (ICT) tools for polling public belief and behavior may prove valuable as means of retaining active routes of communication between stakeholders.
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
This article will review the impact that the pandemic has had on oncology clinical trials. It will assess the effect of the COVID-19 situation on the initial presentation and investigation of patients with suspected cancer. It will also review the impact of the pandemic on the subsequent management of cancer patients, and how clinical trial approval, recruitment, and conduct were affected during the pandemic. An intriguing aspect of the pandemic is that clinical trials investigating treatments for COVID-19 and vaccinations against the causative virus, SARS-CoV-2, have been approved and conducted at an unprecedented speed. ...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
The SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic has put a massive struggle on health care systems. The only therapeutical option at the moment is vaccination. Viral mutation may reduce the efficacy of vaccines. We analyzed if a prophylactic immune cell activation using the bacterial extract Broncho Vaxom (BV) is beneficial during a coronavirus infection. To test our hypothesis we used a mouse coronavirus (MCoV) belonging to the same virus subfamily as SARS-CoV-2. BV was applied for 10 days before MCoV challenge. Viral load was significantly reduced in BV treated animals on day 4 and 10 compared to control (qPCR and histochemistry). BV treat...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Airway cell biology and immunopathology Source Type: research
Vaccine. 2021 Nov 8:S0264-410X(21)01435-3. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.11.001. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of a global pandemic. Safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines are now available, including mRNA-1273, which has shown 94% efficacy in prevention of symptomatic COVID-19 disease. However, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants has led to concerns of viral escape from vaccine-induced immunity. Several variants have shown decreased susceptibility to neutralization by vaccine-induced immunity, most notably B.1.351 (Beta), although the overall...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Reumatismo. 2021 Nov 22;73(3). doi: 10.4081/reumatismo.2021.1445.ABSTRACTSince the severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic outbreak, vaccines gained a growing role. Possible vaccine-related side effects range from minor local events to more prominent systemic manifestations up to anaphylactic reactions. A heterogeneous spectrum of cutaneous reactions has been reported, ranging from local injection site reactions to urticarial and morbilliform eruptions, pernio/chilblains and zoster flares. Here, we describe a case of varicella zoster virus reactivation following mRNA coronavirus 2019 v...
Source: Reumatismo - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Source Type: research
The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has dominated everyday life around the globe for almost two years now. While effective COVID-19 vaccines became available just about one year after the discovery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the breakthrough in medical treatment of patients with COVID-19 is still eagerly awaited. The incomplete understanding of the multifaceted pathophysiology of COVID-19 has hampered the development of targeted therapies to date.
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
In conclusion, with the current infection prevention measures at schools in Japan, secondary transmission at schools would occur in approximately every 200 contacts. When considering this rate, compliance with the current infection prevention measures at schools and early detection and quarantine of the index cases would be effective in preventing the spread of COVID-19 at schools.PMID:34803121 | DOI:10.1620/tjem.255.239
Source: The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
The population's immunity to SARS-CoV-2, achieved either through infection or vaccination, is crucial to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic. A team of researchers led by the University of Zurich (UZH) has now discovered another component that contributes to SARS-CoV-2 immunity - previous antibody responses to other, harmless coronaviruses.
Source: World Pharma News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Featured Research Research and Development Source Type: news
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