Hepatitis A Virus Incidence Rates and Biomarker Dynamics for Plasma Donors, United States

Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2718-2824. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.204642.ABSTRACTThe United States is currently affected by widespread hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreaks. We investigated HAV incidence rates among source plasma donors in the United States since 2016. Serial donations from HAV-positive frequent donors were analyzed for common biologic markers to obtain a detailed picture of the course of infection. We found a considerable increase in incidence rates with shifting outbreak hotspots over time. Although individual biomarker profiles were highly variable, HAV RNA typically had a high peak and a biphasic decrease and often remained detectable for several months. One donor had a biomarker pattern indicative of previous exposure. Our findings show that current HAV outbreaks have been spilling over into the plasma donor population. The detailed results presented improve our comprehension of HAV infection and related public health aspects. In addition, the capture of full RNA curves enables estimation of HAV doubling time.PMID:34670659 | DOI:10.3201/eid2711.204642
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research

Related Links:

This study assessed long term humoral and cellular immune memory response after an average of 12 years follow-up of HAV single-dose vaccination. We selected 81 HAV-single dose vaccinated individuals from a 2015 study, including 54 with protective (PAL) and 27 with unprotective antibody levels (UAL) against HAV. Humoral memory response was assessed by measuring anti-HAV antibody titers at admission in both groups, and 30 days after a booster dose in the UAL group. Flow cytometry analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples stimulated with HAV antigen was performed in 47/81 individuals (21 with PAL, 26 with UAL) to ...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Three-dose of Aimmugen® for MSM-LWHIV was effective while two-dose was less effective compared to non-HIV-infected people. People-LWHIV with shorter duration of ART and lesser CD4 cell count achieved lower titers of anti-HA-IgG and might require an additional vaccination. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.PMID:34825436 | DOI:10.1111/hepr.13736
Source: Cell Research - Category: Cytology Authors: Source Type: research
Food Microbiol. 2022 Apr;102:103921. doi: 10.1016/j.fm.2021.103921. Epub 2021 Oct 1.ABSTRACTHepatitis A virus (HAV) continues to be a public health concern and has caused large foodborne outbreaks and economic losses worldwide. Rapid detection of HAV in foods can help to confirm the source of outbreaks in a timely manner and prevent more people getting infected. In order to efficiently detect HAV at low levels of contamination in foods, rapid and easy-to-use techniques are required to separate and concentrate viral particles to a small volume. In the current study, HAV particles were eluted from green onion, strawberry, an...
Source: Food Microbiology - Category: Food Science Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractTo observe the prevalence of contamination by hepatitis A virus (HAV) and norovirus (NoV) in different food types, 9242 samples were analyzed over a 6-year period (January 2014 –December 2019). Samples were from routine official activities by Competent Authorities (CAs) and Food Business Operators, according to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points plans. Analyses were performed in accordance with European and Italian regulations. Food types were obtained from diff erent production areas of Italy, and ranged from mollusks, ready-to-eat (RTE) and packaged vegetables, frozen berries, tap water, fruit and ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination coverage of at least 77% is likely required to prevent outbreaks of HAV among PEH/PWUD in Louisville, assuming a 90% vaccine efficacy. Proactive hepatitis A vaccination programs among PEH/PWUD will maximize health and economic benefits of these programs and reduce the likelihood of another outbreak.PMID:34686394 | DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.10.001
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Emerg Infect Dis. 2021 Nov;27(11):2718-2824. doi: 10.3201/eid2711.204642.ABSTRACTThe United States is currently affected by widespread hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreaks. We investigated HAV incidence rates among source plasma donors in the United States since 2016. Serial donations from HAV-positive frequent donors were analyzed for common biologic markers to obtain a detailed picture of the course of infection. We found a considerable increase in incidence rates with shifting outbreak hotspots over time. Although individual biomarker profiles were highly variable, HAV RNA typically had a high peak and a biphasic decrease ...
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsDespite recent hepA outbreaks and strengthened recommendations for vaccination in at-risk populations, knowledge gaps persist among US HCPs. This survey may motivate European countries to reinforce national hepA vaccination recommendations and, in parallel, consider efforts to raise vaccination awareness.FundingGlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SAKey messagesEducation on hepatitis A vaccination recommendations in at-risk populations is needed.Health care providers ’ vaccination knowledge plays a critical role to control the hepatitis A outbreak in the US and preventing hepatitis A in Europe.
Source: The European Journal of Public Health - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
suya Kanto Takeya Tsutsumi Hiroshi Yotsuyanagi Hepatitis A virus (HAV) causes transient acute infection, and little is known of viral shedding via the duodenum and into the intestinal environment, including the gut microbiome, from the period of infection until after the recovery of symptoms. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to comprehensively observe the amount of virus excreted into the intestinal tract, the changes in the intestinal microbiome, and the level of inflammation during the healing process. We used blood and stool specimens from patients with human immunodeficiency virus who were infected with HAV d...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Am Fam Physician. 2021 Oct 1;104(4):368-374.ABSTRACTHepatitis A is a common viral infection worldwide that is transmitted via the fecal-oral route. The incidence of infection in the United States decreased by more than 90% after an effective vaccine was introduced, but the number of cases has been increasing because of large community outbreaks in unimmunized individuals. Classic symptoms include fever, malaise, dark urine, and jaundice and are more common in older children and adults. People are most infectious 14 days before and seven days after the development of jaundice. Diagnosis of acute infection requires the use o...
Source: American Family Physician - Category: Primary Care Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: This result implies that it is necessary to prioritize HAV vaccination for vulnerable groups and workers of residential care facilities.PMID:34649399 | DOI:10.3961/jpmph.21.349
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
More News: Hepatitis | Hepatitis A | Infectious Diseases | International Medicine & Public Health | Outbreaks | USA Health