4.I. Workshop: Health systems resilience during COVID-19: Lessons for building back better

Abstract In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) appeared in the city of Wuhan, China. Since little was known about the new virus at the time, the initial reaction in many countries, including most countries in Europe, was to follow their existing pandemic influenza response plans. Countries that adopted this approach presumed that case- and contact-based management would be unable to cope with the scale of the outbreak and widespread community transmission would be inevitable. Yet it became increasingly apparent that COVID-19 was not like pandemic influenza, not least because it was caused by a coronavirus similar to SARS that had emerged in 2003 and whose successful management, maximum suppression leading to elimination, had been very different to that normally adopted with influenza. This was soon confirmed by knowledge of its transmission dynamics and epidemiology, as well as evidence from Wuhan, where the virus has been effectively eliminated even after widespread community transmission had commenced. There was also strong evidence to support the elimination approach from the early success of Taiwan, Hong Kong and South Korea and several countries outside Asia, such as New Zealand and Australia, which adopted a similar approach. As the pandemic continues into its second year, national responses to COVID-19 so far offer useful learning for the months ahead, as well as broader lessons for health system strengthening for the post-pandemic recovery. Countries...
Source: The European Journal of Public Health - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Related Links:

Environ Res. 2021 Aug 19:111909. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111909. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 genomes have been sequenced massively and worldwide and are now available in different public genome repositories. There is much interest in generating bioinformatic tools capable to analyze and interpret SARS-CoV-2 variation. We have designed CovidPhy (http://covidphy.eu), a web interface that can process SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences in plain fasta text format or provided...
Source: Environmental Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated 224 SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences from the Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data (GISAID) in the early part of the outbreak, of which 69 were from Africa. We analyzed a total of 550 mutations by comparing them with the reference SARS-CoV-2 sequence from Wuhan. We classified the mutations observed based on country and region, and afterwards analyzed common and unique mutations on the African continent as a whole. Correlation analyses showed that the duo variants ORF1ab/RdRp 4715L and S protein 614G variants, which are strongly linked to fatality rat e, were not significantly and posi...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Hyper-induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, also known as a cytokine storm or cytokine release syndrome (CRS), is one of the key aspects of the currently ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This process occurs when a large number of innate and adaptive immune cells activate and start producing pro-inflammatory cytokines, establishing an exacerbated feedback loop of inflammation. It is one of the factors contributing to the mortality observed with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) for a subgroup of patients. CRS is not unique to the SARS-CoV-2 infection; it was prevalent in most of the major human coronavirus and influenza A subtype ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
​Fiberoptics and endoscopy have changed the way we treat patients in the emergency department. Endoscopes are relatively easy to use, and can aid your diagnosis and treatment plan. Endoscopy may be useful in urgent cases, such as epistaxis, nasal foreign bodies, and ear debridement. It may also be helpful when dealing with more complicated presentations and critically ill patients, such as those with Ludwig's angina, epiglottis, tracheostomies, or those who need intubation.Fiberoptic tools are not just for surgeons and consultants. The endoscope has many uses in the emergency department, and we have a few tips and tricks...
Source: The Procedural Pause - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Blog Posts Source Type: blogs
Over the past few years, Professor Zhang Yongzhen has made it his business to sequence thousands of previously unknown viruses. But he knew straight away that this one was particularly nasty. It was about 1:30 p.m. on Jan. 3 that a metal box arrived at the drab, beige buildings that house the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. Inside was a test tube packed in dry ice that contained swabs from a patient suffering from a peculiar pneumonia sweeping China’s central city of Wuhan. But little did Zhang know that that box would also unleash a vicious squall of blame and geopolitical acrimony worthy of Pandora herself....
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized COVID-19 overnight Source Type: news
Over the past few years, Professor Zhang Yongzhen has made it his business to sequence thousands of previously unknown viruses. But he knew straight away that this one was particularly nasty. It was about 1:30 p.m. on Jan. 3 that a metal box arrived at the drab, beige buildings that house the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. Inside was a test tube packed in dry ice that contained swabs from a patient suffering from a peculiar pneumonia sweeping China’s central city of Wuhan. But little did Zhang know that that box would also unleash a vicious squall of blame and geopolitical acrimony worthy of Pandora herself....
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized COVID-19 overnight Source Type: news
This study showed that a five-day regimen is as effective as 10 days–that’s important, doctors say, since it could mean shorter stays in the hospital, which could alleviate some of the burden on the health care system. “Of course we will have to wait for the final review of all the data, but it would be very nice to have an anti-viral that’s efficacious in this terrible illness,” says Dr. Aruna Subramanian, a clinical professor of medicine at Stanford and an investigator on the study. “At least we know that we can help patients with this, and that’s really the bottom line.” T...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized COVID-19 feature Magazine Source Type: news
Authors: Esposito S, Noviello S, Pagliano P Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic represents the greatest global public health crisis since the pandemic influenza outbreak of 1918. We are facing a new virus, so several antiviral agents previously used to treat other coronavirus infections such as SARS and MERS are being considered as the first potential candidates to treat COVID-19. Thus, several agents have been used by the beginning of the current outbreak in China first and all over the word successively, as reported in several different guidelines and therapeutic recommendations. At the same time, a great number of cl...
Source: Infezioni in Medicina - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Infez Med Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONThe pre ‐​COVID‐​19 research is unanimous that governments cannot expect to rely on travel restrictions to prevent the spread of pandemics similar to influenza. Travel restrictions do not prevent the spread of disease and may only delay it for a few days or weeks if implemented prior to the interna tional transmission of the disease. The Trump administration’s travel restrictions waited until after the virus had already entered the United States, and they exempted many travelers from China, not to mention the rest of the world.[30]The research shows that the Trump administration should have kno...
Source: Cato-at-liberty - Category: American Health Authors: Source Type: blogs
Abstract The last century has witnessed several assaults from RNA viruses, resulting in millions of death throughout the world. The 21st century appears no longer an exception, with the trend continued with escalated fear of SARS coronavirus in 2002 and further concern of influenza H5N1 in 2003. A novel influenza virus created the first pandemic of the 21st century, the pandemic flu in 2009 preceded with the emergence of another deadly virus, MERS-CoV in 2012. A novel coronavirus "SARS-CoV-2" (and the disease COVID-19) emerged suddenly, causing a rapid outbreak with a moderate case fatality rate. This vi...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research
More News: Australia Health | Bird Flu | China Health | Coronavirus | COVID-19 | Epidemiology | Flu Pandemic | General Medicine | Hong Kong Health | Influenza | International Medicine & Public Health | Learning | Lessons | New Zealand Health | Outbreaks | Pandemics | SARS | South Korea Health | Taiwan Health | Universities & Medical Training | Workshops