Non-Coding RNAs in the Etiology and Control of Major and Neglected Human Tropical Diseases

Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) including microRNAs (miRs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of gene expression in immune cells development and function. Their expression is altered in different physiological and disease conditions, hence making them attractive targets for the understanding of disease etiology and the development of adjunctive control strategies, especially within the current context of mitigated success of control measures deployed to eradicate these diseases. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the role of ncRNAs in the etiology and control of major human tropical diseases including tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and malaria, as well as neglected tropical diseases including leishmaniasis, African trypanosomiasis and leprosy. We highlight that several ncRNAs are involved at different stages of development of these diseases, for example miR-26-5p, miR-132-3p, miR-155-5p, miR-29-3p, miR-21-5p, miR-27b-3p, miR-99b-5p, miR-125-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-223-3p, miR-20b-5p, miR-142-3p, miR-27a-5p, miR-144-5p, miR-889-5p and miR-582-5p in tuberculosis; miR-873, MALAT1, HEAL, LINC01426, LINC00173, NEAT1, NRON, GAS5 and lincRNA-p21 in HIV/AIDS; miR-451a, miR-let-7b and miR-106b in malaria; miR-210, miR-30A-5P, miR-294, miR-721 and lncRNA 7SL RNA in leishmaniasis; and miR-21, miR-181a, miR-146a in leprosy. We further report that several ncRNAs were investigated as diseases biomarkers and a number of them showed good potential for dise...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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