Chloride transport modulators as drug candidates

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2021 Oct 13. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00334.2021. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTChloride transport across cell membranes is broadly involved in epithelial fluid transport, cell volume and pH regulation, muscle contraction, membrane excitability, and organellar acidification. The human genome encodes at least 53 chloride transporting proteins with expression in cell plasma or intracellular membranes, which include chloride channels, exchangers and cotransporters, some having broad anion specificity. Loss of function mutations in chloride transporters cause a wide variety of human diseases, including cystic fibrosis, secretory diarrhea, kidney stones, salt wasting nephropathy, myotonia, osteopetrosis, hearing loss and goiter. While impactful advances have been made in the past decade in drug treatment of cystic fibrosis using small molecule modulators of the defective cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel, other chloride channels and solute carrier proteins (SLCs) represent relatively underexplored target classes for drug discovery. New opportunities have emerged for development of chloride transport modulators as potential therapeutics for secretory diarrheas, constipation, dry eye disorders, kidney stones, polycystic kidney disease, hypertension and osteoporosis. Approaches to chloride transport-targeted drug discovery are reviewed herein, with focus on chloride channel and exchanger classes in which recent preclini...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology - Category: Cytology Authors: Source Type: research

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