Gastroenterology Embraces Artificial Intelligence

AI and machine learning have the potential to redefine the management of several GI disorders.John Halamka, M.D., president, Mayo Clinic Platform, and Paul Cerrato, senior research analyst and communications specialist, Mayo Clinic Platform, wrote this article.Colonoscopy is one of the true success stories in modern medicine.Studies have demonstrated that colonoscopy screening detects the cancer at a much earlier stage, reducing the risk of invasive tumors and metastatic disease, andreducing mortality. However, while colorectal cancer is highly preventable, it is thethird leading cause of cancer-related deathsin the U.S. About 148,000 individuals develop the malignancy and over 53,000 die from it each year. We asked ourselves a question: can AI improve the detection of this and related gastrointestinal disorders?As we explained inThe Digital Reconstruction of Healthcare,one of the challenges in making an accurate diagnosis of GI disease is differentiating between disorders that look similar at the cellular level. For example, because environmental enteropathy and celiac disease overlap histopathologically, deep learning algorithms have been designed to analyze biopsy slides to detect the subtle differences between the two conditions. Syed et al.1 used a combination of convolutional and deconvolutional neural networks in a prospective analysis of over 3,000 biopsy images from 102 children. They were able to tell the differences between environmental enteropathy, celiac disease...
Source: Life as a Healthcare CIO - Category: Information Technology Source Type: blogs

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This study provides pilot data for the further development ofL. casei exoproducts as an anti-inflammatory or anti-proliferative agent for the treatment of inflammatory and cancer diseases in gut. However, more data is needed before final conclusions ofL. casei cell-free supernatant ’s efficacy can be drawn.
Source: Inflammation - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractIn 2019, a new disease characterized by yellow mottling on leaves was observed onMetaplexis japonica (Thunb.) Makino plants in Liaoning, China. Using RNA sequencing and PCR with overlapping primers, the complete nucleotide sequence of the circular double-stranded DNA genome of a new virus similar to caulimoviruses in diseased samples was determined. The genome comprised 7733 base pairs and was predicted to encode six proteins. It had the closest relationship to a caulimovirus, strawberry vein banding virus, based on sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis. Species-level sequence divergences from caulimovirus...
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
AbstractThe complete genome sequence of a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus that was isolated fromAlternaria solani strain DT-10 causing potato foliar disease was determined. The virus, designated as"Alternaria solani chrysovirus 1" (AsCV1), has four dsRNA segments (dsRNA 1-4) with a length of 3600 bp, 3128 bp, 2996 bp, and 2714 bp, respectively. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, 1084 amino acids [aa]), putative capsid protein (905 aa), alphachryso-P3 (835 aa), and alphachryso-P4 (729 aa) were encoded by dsRNA1, dsRNA2, dsRNA3, and dsRNA4, respectively, which had the highest sequence identity of 41.77%-...
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Lab Chip, 2021, Advance Article DOI: 10.1039/D1LC00451D, PaperSina Nejati, Jiangshan Wang, Ulisses Heredia-Rivera, Sotoudeh Sedaghat, Ian Woodhouse, Jay S. Johnson, Mohit Verma, Rahim Rahimi A non-invasive sampling capsule is introduced to site-selectively collect calprotectin biomarker from the small intestine. This approach can be accompanied with the fecal calprotectin assay to diagnose IBD and differentiate its types (CD and UC). To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above. The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Source: RSC - Lab Chip latest articles - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
Source: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy - Category: Health Management Tags: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy Source Type: research
ConclusionsWe presented a review of the segmentation and classification methods for tumours detected in BUS images. This review paper selected old and recent studies on segmenting and classifying tumours in BUS images.
Source: Journal of Ultrasound - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
ConclusionAlthough results have to be interpreted with caution due to the large heterogeneity, the superior response rate of TARE and TACE compared to chemo-infusion suggests first choice of TARE or TACE in chemorefractory LMBC patients. Chemo-infusion could be considered in LMBC patients not suitable for TARE or TACE.Level of Evidence3a-
Source: CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
WHO names variant found in Belgium and Israel OmicronWhite House adviser Fauci: no indication variant is in USBioNTech says vaccine can be tweaked in 100 days if neededJoe Biden ’s chief medical adviser, Anthony Fauci, said on Friday there was “no indication” the new “Omicron” coronavirus variant discovered in southern Africa had reached the US.Nonetheless, the the Biden administration said it would restrict travel from South Africa and seven other countries in southern Africa, starting on Monday.Continue reading...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Biden administration Coronavirus Infectious diseases World news Science US news US domestic policy US foreign policy Air transport South Africa Source Type: news
This study attempts to further understand the genetic landscape of cutaneous malignant melanoma in terms of loco-regional variations and malignant potential. Thirty-five cases of cutaneous malignant melanoma were retrieved from the archives and were classified based on location of the primary tumor and presence or absence of metastatic disease. Next-generation sequencing data consisting of base substitutions, copy number variations, indels, and rearrangements in a total of 324 genes were analyzed for recurrent genetic alterations. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS26 software. Mutations in KDM gene family we...
Source: The American Journal of Dermatopathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Original Study Source Type: research
In this study, we described a unique case of cutaneous metaplasia on the elbow of a 25-year-old man who had a clinical history of epidermolysis bullosa simplex, but had no history of any gastrointestinal disease. The lesion had been clinically stable for 5 years. Histopathologically, the epithelium showed many columnar cells with mucinous cytoplasm, with no atypia or mitoses. The proliferation rate was low (7% by Ki67). The metaplastic areas expressed epithelial membrane antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, cytokeratin 7, MUC5AC, MUC2, and Cyclin-D1.
Source: The American Journal of Dermatopathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Extraordinary Case Report Source Type: research
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