Distinctive Evasion Mechanisms to Allow Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Different Human Cell Lines

Lyme borreliosis is a multisystemic disease caused by the pleomorphic bacteria of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The exact mechanisms for the infection to progress into a prolonged sequelae of the disease are currently unknown, although immune evasion and persistence of the bacteria in the host are thought to be major contributors. The current study investigated B. burgdorferi infection processes in two human cell lines, both non-immune and non-phagocytic, to further understand the mechanisms of infection of this bacterium. By utilizing light, confocal, helium ion, and transmission electron microscopy, borrelial infection of chondrosarcoma (SW1353) and dermal fibroblast (BJ) cells were examined from an early 30-min time point to a late 9-days post-infection. Host cell invasion, viability of both the host and B. burgdorferi, as well as, co-localization with lysosomes and the presence of different borrelial pleomorphic forms were analyzed. The results demonstrated differences of infection between the cell lines starting from early entry as B. burgdorferi invaded BJ cells in coiled forms with less pronounced host cell extensions, whereas in SW1353 cells, micropodial interactions with spirochetes were always seen. Moreover, infection of BJ cells increased in a dose dependent manner throughout the examined 9 days, while the percentage of infection, although dose dependent, decreased in SW1353 cells after reaching a peak at 48 h. Furthermore, blebs, round body and dam...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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AbstractLyme disease is an infection caused byBorrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected Ixodes tick. The majority of patients recover without complications with antibiotic therapy. However, for a minority of patients, accompanying non-specific symptoms can persist for months following completion of therapy. The constellation of symptoms such as fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, and musculoskeletal pain that persist beyond 6  months and are associated with disability have been termed post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS), a subset of a broader term “chron...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Giovanni Fattori Radiation-induced optic neuropathy (RION) is a rare side effect following radiation therapy involving the optic structures whose onset is, due to the low amount of available data, challenging to predict. We have analyzed a multi-institutional cohort including 289 skull-base cancer patients treated with proton therapy who all received >45 GyRBE to the optic apparatus. An overall incidence rate of 4.2% (12) was observed, with chordoma patients being at higher risk (5.8%) than chondrosarcoma patients (3.2%). Older age and arterial hypertension, tumor involvement, and repeated surgeries (>3)...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
We report an imported case of Bannwarth syndrome in a pediatric patient and review the literature for other pediatric cases reported.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research
Conclusions: Operative management of pediatric patients with Lyme arthritis is associated with increased resource utilization and costs while being similarly efficacious to nonoperative management. As the US Lyme epidemic expands, improved diagnosis and management of acute undifferentiated arthritis may prevent unneeded operative intervention. Level of Evidence: Level III—retrospective cohort study.
Source: Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Infection Source Type: research
ng;rd Shaun Quegan Some of the climate-sensitive infections (CSIs) affecting humans are zoonotic vector-borne diseases, such as Lyme borreliosis (BOR) and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), mostly linked to various species of ticks as vectors. Due to climate change, the geographical distribution of tick species, their hosts, and the prevalence of pathogens are likely to change. A recent increase in human incidences of these CSIs in the Nordic regions might indicate an expansion of the range of ticks and hosts, with vegetation changes acting as potential predictors linked to habitat suitability. In this paper, we study di...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Oct 18:tpmd210052. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0052. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBorrelia yangtzensis has been identified in rodents and ticks in China and Japan. A 57-year-old woman with bite mark was diagnosed with B. yangtzensis infection via molecular and serological testing. Here, we report the first case of human infection caused by B. yangtzensis in Korea.PMID:34662863 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0052
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2021 Oct 18. doi: 10.1007/s10571-021-01154-8. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAlzheimer's disease (AD), the most frequently diagnosed dementia, is a senile neurodegenerative disorder characterized by amnesia and cognitive dysfunction. Unfortunately, there are still no successful strategies to prevent AD progression. Thus, the vast majority of research focuses on recognizing risk factors for developing and progressing this disease. Human spirochetes, fungi, Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, and human herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) have all been implicated in the deve...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - Category: Cytology Authors: Source Type: research
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Oct 18:tpmd210052. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0052. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBorrelia yangtzensis has been identified in rodents and ticks in China and Japan. A 57-year-old woman with bite mark was diagnosed with B. yangtzensis infection via molecular and serological testing. Here, we report the first case of human infection caused by B. yangtzensis in Korea.PMID:34662863 | DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0052
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
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