No increased circular inference in adults with high levels of autistic traits or autism

In this study, we collected data from 21 participants with self-reported diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders and 155 participants with a broad range of autistic traits in an online probabilistic decision-making task (the fisher task). We used previously established Bayesian models to investigate possible associations between autistic traits or autism and circular inference. There was no correlation between prior or likelihood reverberation and autistic traits across the whole sample. Similarly, no differences in any of the circular inference model parameters were found between autistic participants and those with no diagnosis. Furthermore, participants incorporated information from both priors and likelihoods in their decisions, with no relationship between their weights and psychiatric traits, contrary to what common theories for both autism and schizophrenia would suggest. These findings su ggest that there is no increased signal reverberation in autism, despite the known presence of excitation-to-inhibition imbalances. They can be used to further contrast and refine the Bayesian theories of schizophrenia and autism, revealing a divergence in the computational mechanisms underlying the two conditions.
Source: PLoS Computational Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: research

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Conclusions: The increased interest in personalized medicine and data-driven disease subtyping also extends to psychiatric disorders. However, to date, this subfield is at an incipient exploratory stage, and all retrieved studies were mostly proofs of principle where further validation and increased sample sizes are craved for. Whereas results for all explored diseases are inconsistent, we believe this reflects the need for concerted, multisite data collection efforts with a strong focus on measuring the generalizability of results. Finally, whereas functional MRI is the best way of measuring brain function available to da...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Curr Mol Med. 2021 Oct 18. doi: 10.2174/1566524021666211018112757. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMicroglia are immune cells found in the central nervous system (CNS) involved in infection combat and cellular debris clean. These glial cells are involved in synaptogenesis during brain development by their interactions with neurons and other glial cells. These relations are associated with the secretion of signaling molecules, such as chemokines and neurotrophic factors. Microglia cells influence synapsis and neuron morphology during different phases of development. Also, other systems, for example, gut microbiota indirectly ...
Source: Current Molecular Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Source Type: research
Neuropharmacology. 2021 Oct 16;201:108841. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2021.108841. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTA strong association between perinatal viral infections and neurodevelopmental disorders has been established. Both the direct contact of the virus with the developing brain and the strong maternal immune response originated by viral infections can impair proper neurodevelopment. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the highly-infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is currently responsible for a large global outbreak and is a major public health issue. While initial stu...
Source: Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusions Our findings provide strong evidence for a causal risk effect of insomnia on IAs and suggestive evidence for mood instability as a causal risk effect on IAs. These results could inform the prevention and clinical intervention of IAs.
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
This article provides (a) a methodological critique of studies on race bias and gender bias in diagnosis and (b) a narrative review of results from studies with good internal validity. The results suggest that race bias occurs for the diagnosis of conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, comorbid substance abuse and mood disorders, eating disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, and the differential diagnosis of schizophrenia and psychotic affective disorders. Other results suggest that gender bias occurs for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, a...
Source: Clinical Psychology Review - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Source Type: research
Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2021 Oct 12. doi: 10.3758/s13415-021-00959-w. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe eyes and the gaze are important stimuli for social interaction in humans. Impaired recognition of facial identity, facial emotions, and inference of the intentions of others may result from difficulties in extracting information relevant to the eye region, mainly the direction of gaze. Therefore, a review of these data is of interest. Behavioral data demonstrating the importance of the eye region and how humans respond to gaze direction are reviewed narratively, and several theoretical models on how visual informatio...
Source: Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Source Type: research
This study aims to assess the trends in the incidence rate of neurological disorders in developed and developing countries worldwide during 1990-2019. The age-standardized incidence rate (per 100000 persons) of neurological disorders was the primary outcome, extracted from the Global Burden of Disease database for 189 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. Using the Human Development Index (HDI), countries were classified into developed (HDI ≥ 0.7) and developing (HDI
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Source Type: research
Devastating conditions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia manifest with a dramatic disruption and persistent collapse of interpersonal interactions early in life, and social functioning is a key predictor of outcome. It has been difficult to study social attachment because traditional genetic lab model animals do not exhibit adult social attachment behaviors. Thus, the analysis of social attachment has been resistant to genetic and neurobiological approaches. Prairie voles, in contrast, display social attachment as adults such that mating partners form an enduring pair bond and display complex attachm...
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Symposium 24 Source Type: research
This study attempted to gain some experience in applying chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-tier genetic test for patients with schizophrenia. We consecutively enrolled patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder from a clinical setting and conducted genome-wide copy number variation (CNV) analysis using a chromosomal microarray platform. We followed the 2020 “Technical Standards for the interpretation and reporting of constitutional copy-number variants: a joint consensus recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) and the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen)” to inte...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
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