The Perfect Storm: COVID-19 Health Disparities in US Blacks

AbstractCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) accounts for over 180,000 deaths in the USA. Although COVID-19 affects all racial ethnicities, non-Hispanic Blacks have the highest mortality rates. Evidence continues to emerge, linking the disproportion of contagion and mortality from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), a result of adverse social determinants of health. Yet, genetic predisposition may also play a credible role in disease transmission. SARS-CoV-2 enters cells by interaction between SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and the receptor molecule angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expressed on the surface of the target cells, such that polymorphisms and the expression level of ACE2 influence infectivity and consequent pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. Genetic polymorphisms in other multiple genes, such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and interleukin-6, are also closely associated with underlying diseases, such as hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which substantially raise SARS-CoV-2 mortality. However, it is unknown how these genetic polymorphisms contribute to the disparate mortality rates, with or without underlying diseases. Of particular interest is the potential that genetic polymorphisms in these genes may be influencing the disparity of COVID-19 mortality rates in Black communities. Here, we review the evidence that biological predisposition for high-risk comorbid conditions may be relevant to our ability to fully understand and therefore ad...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research

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AbstractCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) accounts for over 180,000 deaths in the USA. Although COVID-19 affects all racial ethnicities, non-Hispanic Blacks have the highest mortality rates. Evidence continues to emerge, linking the disproportion of contagion and mortality from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), a result of adverse social determinants of health. Yet, genetic predisposition may also play a credible role in disease transmission. SARS-CoV-2 enters cells by interaction between SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and the receptor molecule angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expressed on the...
Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Conclusions: Preliminary studies have suggested that acupuncture might reduce BP in hypertension and reduce blood sugar and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus. More research is required to demonstrate if acupuncture is a useful adjunct for treating hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus as comorbidities of COVID-19.PMID:34239661 | PMC:PMC8236290 | DOI:10.1089/acu.2020.1475
Source: Acupuncture in Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Biomed Pharmacother. 2021 May 6;140:111685. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111685. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTType 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, and other associated metabolic complications have been demonstrated as a crucial contributor to the enhanced morbidity and mortality of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Data on the interplay between metabolic comorbidities and the outcomes in patients with COVID-19 have been emerging and rapidly increasing. This implies a mechanistic link between metabolic diseases and COVID-19 resulting in the exacerbation of the condition. Nonetheless, new evidence...
Source: Biomedicine and pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine and pharmacotherapie - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Source Type: research
COVID-19 is a disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2), known as a highly contagious disease, currently affecting more than 200 countries worldwide. The main feature of SARS-CoV-2 that distinguishes it from other viruses is the speed of transmission combined with higher risk of mortality from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). People with diabetes mellitus (DM), severe obesity, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension are more likely to get infected and are at a higher risk of mortality from COVID-19. Among elderly patients who are at higher risk of death from ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Authors: Deravi N, Fathi M, Vakili K, Yaghoobpoor S, Pirzadeh M, Mokhtari M, Fazel T, Ahsan E, Ghaffari S Abstract After the emergence of the novel 2019 coronavirus disease in P. R. China, this highly contagious disease has been currently spread out to almost all countries, worldwide. Novel 2019 coronavirus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, and severe acute respiratory syndrome are reported to cause a higher risk for severe infections in patients with chronic comorbidities, such as hypertension and diabetes. These severe infections can contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in these patients...
Source: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine - Category: Cardiology Tags: Rev Cardiovasc Med Source Type: research
;nez-Alvarado MDR Abstract Diabetes mellitus is a complex, multifactorial, chronic disease characterized by impaired metabolism of glucose, fats and proteins. Patients who suffer from it frequently have hyperglycemia and coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death. The comorbidities associated with diabetes are overweight and obesity, systemic arterial hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia and in some patients peripheral vascular disease, kidney damage, neuropathy and retinopathy. Chronic lack of control of the disease is associated with increased susceptibility to infections, which generally have few s...
Source: Archivos de Cardiologia de Mexico - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Arch Cardiol Mex Source Type: research
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved into a worldwide crisis and was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020 [1]. The rate of spread, range of clinical manifestations, morbidity, and mortality associated with COVID-19 has prompted special interest in understanding the factors that predispose individuals to infection and severe forms of the disease. Many of the early studies from China overlapped in finding that, in addition to older age, certain chronic medical conditions including hypertension...
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: COVID-19 in Metabolism Source Type: research
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