FLT3L release by NK cells enhances response to radioimmunotherapy in preclinical models of HNSCC

CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the complexity of using radio-immunotherapies to activate NK cells within the tumor microenvironment, and the importance of NK cells in activating dendritic cells for increased tumor surveillance.PMID:34518311 | DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-0971
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research

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We present a systematic review of FA-HNSCC treatments reported from 1966 to 2020, defining a cohort of 119 FA-HNSCC patients including 16 esophageal SCCs (131 total primary tumors), who were treated with surgery, RT, systemic therapy (including cytotoxic agents, EGFR inhibitors, or immune checkpoint inhibitors), or a combination of modalities. We summarize the clinical responses and regimen-associated toxicities by treatment modality. The collective evidence suggests that when possible, surgical resection with curative intent should remain the primary treatment modality for FA-HNSCC. Radiation can be administered with acce...
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most incident cancer worldwide. More than half of HNSCC patients experience locoregional or distant relapse to treatment despite aggressive multimodal therapeutic approaches that include surgical resection, radiation therapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy. Before the arrival of immunotherapy, systemic chemotherapy was previously employed as the standard first-line protocol with an association of cisplatin or carboplatin plus 5-fluorouracil plus cetuximab (anti-EFGR antibody). Unfortunately, acquisition of therapy resistance is common in patients with HNSCC and often re...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this month ’s Oncology Scan, we delve into the increasingly complex world of immunotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by discussing 3 recent studies integrating immunotherapy into treatment of HNSCC.1-3 The first 2 investigated the use of neoadjuvant immunotherapy before definitive surg ery, whereas the third searched for an abscopal response from delivering stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to a single lesion in patients with metastatic HNSCC. The 2 neoadjuvant studies focused on patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative disease, whereas the SBRT study stratified patients on...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Oncology Scan Source Type: research
arma Terry A. Day Cancers that arise in the head and neck region are comprised of a heterogeneous group of malignancies that include carcinogen- and human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven mucosal squamous cell carcinoma as well as skin cancers such as cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma. These malignancies develop in critical areas for eating, talking, and breathing and are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality despite advances in treatment. Understanding of advances in the management of these various cancers is important for all multidisciplinary prov...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
(American Society for Radiation Oncology) A new phase II trial finds that a combination of radiation therapy and immunotherapy led to encouraging survival outcomes and acceptable toxicity for patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The combination of radiation and pembrolizumab may offer a new treatment option for patients who are ineligible for cisplatin chemotherapy, part of standard treatment for the disease. Findings will be presented at the 2020 Multidisciplinary Head and Neck Cancers Symposium.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
Opinion statementStandard-of-care treatment for the majority of patients with locoregionally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is either upfront surgery followed by adjuvant treatment as indicated by intraoperative or pathologic findings or concurrent chemoradiation reserving surgical salvage for non-responsive disease. An attempt at upfront complete resection should be pursued if feasible in patients with oral cavity or paranasal sinus primary tumors. Given multimodality treatment paradigms, patients with locoregionally advanced SCCHN should be managed in a multidisciplinary setting. Modern rad...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
DNA-damaging chemotherapy and radiation therapy are integrated into the treatment paradigm of the majority of cancer patients. Recently, immunotherapy that targets the immunosuppressive interaction between programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 has been approved for malignancies including non–small cell lung cancer, melanoma, and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. ATR is a DNA damage–signaling kinase activated at damaged replication forks, and ATR kinase inhibitors potentiate the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging chemotherapies. We show here that the ATR kinase inhibitor AZD6738 combines with conformal r...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: These data reveal multiple layers of immunoregulation that can promote tumorigenesis, and the therapeutic potential of sequential targeting to overcome tumor resistance mechanisms. We propose that targeted Treg inhibitors may be critical for achieving durable tumor response with combined radiotherapy and immunotherapy. PMID: 30042205 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
Immune system dysfunction plays a role in both the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), highlighting the potential role for immunotherapy to improve outcomes in this disease. The application of anti-PD-1 therapies for recurrent or metastatic HNSCC has found promising results. This has led to interest in combining immunotherapy with radiation therapy (RT) for the primary treatment of locally advanced HNSCC. RT with concurrent cetuximab is an option for patients who are medically unfit to receive cisplatin, and ongoing trials seek to determine to role of cetuximab-RT in treatment de-i...
Source: Seminars in Radiation Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Therapeutic principles of radiation therapy in head and neck carcinomas will be discussed in this review. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy with concomitant cisplatin should be standard. In case of contraindication to chemotherapy, cetuximab is an option, while hyperfractionation should be considered in patients unfit for concomitant treatment. Concomitant chemotherapy should be administered in the presence of extracapsular extensions and positive margins in the postoperative setting. Current research areas such as desescalation in human papillomavirus-positive tumours, adaptive radiotherapy, radiomics and...
Source: Cancer Radiotherapie - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Cancer Radiother Source Type: research
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