The Sick Adipose Tissue: New Insights Into Defective Signaling and Crosstalk With the Myocardium

Adipose tissue (AT) biology is linked to cardiovascular health since obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and positively correlated with excessive visceral fat accumulation. AT signaling to myocardial cells through soluble factors known as adipokines, cardiokines, branched-chain amino acids and small molecules like microRNAs, undoubtedly influence myocardial cells and AT function via the endocrine-paracrine mechanisms of action. Unfortunately, abnormal total and visceral adiposity can alter this harmonious signaling network, resulting in tissue hypoxia and monocyte/macrophage adipose infiltration occurring alongside expanded intra-abdominal and epicardial fat depots seen in the human obese phenotype. These processes promote an abnormal adipocyte proteomic reprogramming, whereby these cells become a source of abnormal signals, affecting vascular and myocardial tissues, leading to meta-inflammation, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, heart hypertrophy, heart failure and myocardial infarction. This review first discusses the pathophysiology and consequences of adipose tissue expansion, particularly their association with meta-inflammation and microbiota dysbiosis. We also explore the precise mechanisms involved in metabolic reprogramming in AT that represent plausible causative factors for CVD. Finally, we clarify how lifestyle changes could promote improvement in myocardiocyte function in the context of changes in AT proteomics and a better gut mic...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Related Links:

In this study, mature DCs (mDCs), generated from the GM-CSF and IL-4 induced bone marrow cells, were intravenously injected into wild-type mice. Three days later, assays showed that the mDCs were indeed able to return to the thymus. Homing DCs have been mainly reported to deplete thymocytes and induce tolerance. However, medullary TECs (mTECs) play a crucial role in inducing immune tolerance. Thus, we evaluated whether the mDCs homing into the thymus led to TECs depletion. We cocultured mDCs with mTEC1 cells and found that the mDCs induced the apoptosis and inhibited the proliferation of mTEC1 cells. These effects were onl...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In conclusion, cancer survivors, especially older individuals, demonstrate greater odds of and accelerated functional decline, suggesting that cancer and/or its treatment may alter aging trajectories. Linking Particulate Air Pollution and Dementia in a Small Region of the US https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2021/08/linking-particulate-air-pollution-and-dementia-in-a-small-region-of-the-us/ It is fairly settled that evident particulate air pollution, such as daily exposure to smoke from wood-fueled cooking fires, has a strongly detrimental effect on long-term health. The mechanisms involved are inflamm...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
ConclusionsSTE-aVR with multilead ST depression was associated with acutely thrombotic coronary occlusion in only 10% of patients. Routine STEMI activation in STE-aVR for emergent revascularization is not warranted, although urgent, rather than emergent, catheterization appears to be important.
Source: Dr. Smith's ECG Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: blogs
Which of the following is an innocent murmur? Gibson’s murmur Roger’s murmur Still’s murmur Dock’s murmur Correct answer: 3. Still’s murmur Still’s murmur was described by George Frederic Still in 1909. This is a low pitched murmur heard in the lower left sternal area. It is best heard with the bell of the stethoscope. Still’s murmur is a mid systolic murmur, loudest in supine position and diminishes in intensity on sitting and standing as venous return decreases [Doshi AR. Innocent Heart Murmur. Cureus. 2018 Dec 5;10(12):e3689]. Gibson’s murmur is the train-in-tunnel murm...
Source: Cardiophile MD - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Source Type: blogs
AbstractType 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease prevalent in the world, and it is also one of the overall factors leading to overall morbidity and mortality. Throughout Asia, the proportion of people with T2DM and obesity has increased and this growth rate shows no signs of slowing down. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) can specifically treat insulin resistance and improve metabolic syndrome, including rosiglitazone, troglitazone and pioglitazone, which are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists. These drugs have been shown to have better therapeutic effect and glycemic control, but also accompani...
Source: Diabetology International - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Circulation. 2021 Jun 21:CIR0000000000000988. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000988. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTObstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by recurrent complete and partial upper airway obstructive events, resulting in intermittent hypoxemia, autonomic fluctuation, and sleep fragmentation. Approximately 34% and 17% of middle-aged men and women, respectively, meet the diagnostic criteria for OSA. Sleep disturbances are common and underdiagnosed among middle-aged and older adults, and the prevalence varies by race/ethnicity, sex, and obesity status. OSA prevalence is as high as 40% to 80% in patients with ...
Source: Circulation - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: research
Associations of selected biomarkers with incident heart failure across body mass index categories. Models are adjusted for age, sex, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cholesterol, body mass index, myocardial infarction, stroke, atrial fibrillation, and renal dysfunction. In analyses performed in the total population, models were also adjusted for body mass index. Hazard ratio (HR) are presented per standard deviation increase in natural log transformed biomarker.Pint represents theP-value for biomarker*continuous body mass index interaction for heart failure outcome in the total population. CI, confidence interval;...
Source: European Journal of Heart Failure - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Short report Source Type: research
ConclusionOur study results support the obesity paradox in ischemic stroke patients as shown by a significantly decreased hazard ratio for one-year mortality among overweight and obese patients in comparison to non-overweight patients.
Source: PLoS One - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Associations of selected biomarkers with incident heart failure across body mass index categories. Models are adjusted for age, sex, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cholesterol, body mass index, myocardial infarction, stroke, atrial fibrillation, and renal dysfunction. In analyses performed in the total population, models were also adjusted for body mass index. Hazard ratio (HR) are presented per standard deviation increase in natural log transformed biomarker.Pint represents theP‐value for biomarker*continuous body mass index interaction for heart failure outcome in the total population. CI, confidence interva...
Source: European Journal of Heart Failure - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Short Report Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals with no metabolic disorders, MHO alone did not significantly increase the subsequent CVD risk. However, individuals with comorbid MHO and abdominal obesity had a higher risk of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation, suggesting the prognostic importance of abdominal obesity in subjects with MHO. PMID: 33551397 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Circulation Journal - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Circ J Source Type: research
More News: Atrial Fibrillation | Biology | Cardiology | Cardiovascular | Eating Disorders & Weight Management | Endocrinology | Heart | Heart Attack | Heart Failure | Obesity