Decision-Making, Ethics, and End-of-Life Care in Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Comprehensive Narrative Review

Conclusions: Despite numerous ethical issues reported surrounding pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, we found limited patient-level research and no practical guides for communicating with families or managing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation discontinuation.
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - Category: Pediatrics Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

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This paper addresses the problem of frequency diverse array (FDA) signal design for target localization in both non-cognitive and cognitive radars. For the non-cognitive case, the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB) for target localization in FDA radar is derived and optimized with respect to the transmit signal parameters. It is shown that FDA transmission introduces coupling between range and direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation, and that the DOA estimation accuracy can be improved by increasing the signal bandwidth. Since the CRB ignores the threshold phenomenon, we propose to minimize it under a constraint which assures tha...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
Consider a Bayesian binary decision-making problem in star networks, where local agents make selfish decisions independently, and a fusion agent makes a final decision based on aggregated decisions and its own private signal. In particular, we assume all agents have private beliefs for the true prior probability, based on which they perform Bayesian decision making. We focus on the Bayes risk of the fusion agent and counterintuitively find that incorrect beliefs could achieve a smaller risk than that when agents know the true prior. It is of independent interest for sociotechnical system design that the optimal beliefs of ...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
In this paper, we investigate a nonconvex fractional quadratically constrained quadratic problem (fractional QCQP), which has a wide application to the resource allocation optimization in wireless communication systems. Different from the state-of-the-art methods needing to solve semidefinite programmings or second-order cone programmings, we propose a fast algorithm for solving fractional QCQP by combining the successive convex approximation method and the consensus alternating direction method of multipliers, which has only simple computations and works very fast in applications with modest accuracy. We also apply the pr...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
In this paper, a tensor-based joint channel parameter estimation and information symbol detection scheme is developed for millimeter wave (mmWave) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication systems. At the base station (BS), the information symbols are encoded according to the Khatri-Rao space-time (KRST) method and transmitted through time-varying channels. The received signals at the mobile station (MS) are constructed into a nested complex-valued parallel factor (PARAFAC) model, which contains an outer model and an inner model, respectively. With outer model, we estimate the compound channel matrix and ...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
Recent years have witnessed growing interest in reduced cost radar systems operating with low power. Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar technology is known to achieve high performance sensing by probing with multiple orthogonal waveforms. However, implementing a low cost low power MIMO radar is challenging. One of the reasons for this difficulty stems from the increased cost and power consumption required by analog-to-digital convertors (ADCs) in acquiring the multiple waveforms at the radar receiver. In this work we study reduced cost MIMO radar receivers restricted to operate with low resolution ADCs. We design ...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
Multiobject tracking provides situational awareness that enables new applications for modern convenience, public safety, and homeland security. This paper presents a factor graph formulation and a particle-based sum-product algorithm (SPA) for scalable detection and tracking of extended objects. The proposed method dynamically introduces states of newly detected objects, efficiently performs probabilistic multiple-measurement to object association, and jointly infers the geometric shapes of objects. Scalable extended object tracking (EOT) is enabled by modeling association uncertainty by measurement-oriented association va...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
Federated averaging (FedAvg) is a popular federated learning (FL) technique that updates the global model by averaging local models and then transmits the updated global model to devices for their local model update. One main limitation of FedAvg is that the average-based global model is not necessarily better than local models in the early stage of the training process so that FedAvg might diverge in realistic scenarios, especially when the data is non-identically distributed across devices and the number of data samples varies significantly from device to device. In this paper, we propose a new FL technique based on simu...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
Classical quantizer design approaches using the Lloyd-Max algorithm (or $k$-means) have served signal processing applications for more than three decades. With the advent of distributed signal processing and machine learning at edge devices, novel alternatives for quantizers design will be desired to address the energy, communication and hardware constraints. To address these resource challenges, we propose a model-driven approach, termed Approximate Lloyd-Max (ALM) design, based on piecewise linear approximation of the signal-source probability density. From the principles of the ALM design, we develop a data-driven quant...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
In this paper, we propose a regularization technique for noisy-image super-resolution and image denoising. Total variation (TV) regularization is adopted in many image processing applications to preserve the local smoothness. However, TV prior is prone to oversmoothness, staircasing effect, and contrast losses. Nonlocal TV (NLTV) mitigates the contrast losses by adaptively weighting the smoothness based on the similarity measure of image patches. Although it suppresses the noise effectively in the flat regions, it might leave residual noise surrounding the edges especially when the image is not oversmoothed. To address thi...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
The finite impulse response (FIR) approach is known to be more robust than the Kalman approach. In this paper, we derive a batch $q$-lag maximum likelihood (ML) FIR smoother for full covariance matrices and represent it with an iterative algorithm using recursions for diagonal covariance matrices. It is shown that, under ideal conditions of fully known model, the ML FIR smoother occupies an intermediate place between the more accurate Rauch-Tung-Striebel (RTS) smoother and the less accurate unbiased FIR smoother. With uncertainties and errors in noise covariances, ML FIR smoothing is significantly superior to RTS smoothing...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
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