Characterization of humoral response to COVID mRNA vaccines in multiple sclerosis patients on disease modifying therapies

Vaccine. 2021 Sep 2:S0264-410X(21)01126-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.08.078. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTLittle is known about COVID-19 mRNA vaccine humoral immune responses in patients with central nervous system autoimmune demyelinating diseases, multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO), who are on B-cell depleting therapies (BCDT) and other disease modifying therapies (DMTs). We conducted a single center prospective study to identify the clinical and immunological features associated with vaccine-induced antibody response in 53 participants before and after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. This is the first report on the anti-spike RBD and anti-nucleocapsid antibody response, along with pre- and post-vaccine absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC) and flow cytometry analysis of CD19 and CD20 lymphocytes in patients with MS and NMO. We tested the hypothesis that patients on BCDT may have impaired COVID-19 vaccine humoral responses. Among patients on BCDT, 36.4% demonstrated a positive antibody response to spike RBD, in comparison to 100% in all other groups such as healthy controls, untreated MS, and patients on non-B cell depleting DMTs (p
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research

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AbstractMultiple Sclerosis (MS) has long been considered a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. However, newer evidence shows that B cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of MS via antibody production, antigen presentation, T cell stimulation and activation, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Developing B cells express the CD20 molecule from the pre-B cell to the plasmablast stage, and the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies rituximab, ocrelizumab, ofatumumab and ublituximab are either in use or are being developed for treatment of MS as B cell-depleting therapies. They have show...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Neuroimmunology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: INVITED REVIEW Source Type: research
We report clinical and MRI features of seven individuals who received the Moderna (n  = 3) or Pfizer (n  = 4) SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. Within one to 21  days of either the first (n  = 2) or second (n  = 5) vaccine dose, these patients developed neurologic symptoms and MRI findings consistent with active CNS demyelination of the optic nerve, brain, and/or spinal cord. Symptoms included visual loss, dysmetria, gait instability, paresthesias, sphincter disturbance, and limb weakness. Age ranged from 24 to 64 (mean 39.1) years; five were woman (71.4%). The final dia...
Source: Journal of Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
AbstractObjectivesThe primary objective of the study is to demonstrate the efficacy of low-dose IFN- β in reducing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 recently infected elderly patients to progress towards severe COVID-19versus control group within 28 days. Secondary objectives are:To assess the reduction in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission in patients treated with IFN- βversus control group within 28 days of randomizationTo assess the reduction in number of deaths in IFN- β compared to control group (day 28)To evaluate the increase in proportion of participants returning to negative SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in IFN- β -...
Source: Trials - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
CONCLUSION: Although it is a sporadic finding, SARS-CoV-2 can cause transverse myelitis. The condition responds to medical therapy.PMID:34457267 | PMC:PMC8380545 | DOI:10.1016/j.amsu.2021.102749
Source: Annals of Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Hum Antibodies. 2021 Aug 6. doi: 10.3233/HAB-210453. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMultiple sclerosis is the major demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Relapsing MS can be treated by a number of approved monoclonal antibodies that currently target: CD20, CD25 (withdrawn), CD49d and CD52. These all target potentially pathogenic memory B cell subsets and perhaps functionally inhibit pathogenic T cell function. These consist of chimeric, humanized and fully human antibodies. However, despite humanization it is evident that all of these monoclonal antibodies can induce binding and neutralizing antibodies ranging from
Source: Human Antibodies - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Source Type: research
Int Immunopharmacol. 2021 Jul 28;99:108021. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108021. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSince the beginning of vaccination programs against COVID-19 in different countries, several populations such as patients with specific immunological conditions have been considered as the priorities for immunization. In this regard, patients with autoimmune diseases or those receiving immunosuppressive agents and anti-cancer therapies, need special attention. However, no confirmed data is presently available regarding COVID-19 vaccines in these populations due to exclusion from the conducted clinical trials. Given ...
Source: International Immunopharmacology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
New digital health tech targeted to fight autoimmune diseases or their symptoms are diverse and creative. These often completely different illnesses, like type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis, indicate an immune system dysfunction. Immune cells and mechanisms target the body’s own cells and structures, deconstructing it bit by bit and inducing inflammation. An estimated 24-50 million people in the US alone are living with autoimmune conditions. It affects their day-to-day life, but scientists suggest people living with chronic conditions could also be more susc...
Source: The Medical Futurist - Category: Information Technology Authors: Tags: Biotechnology Future of Medicine Portable Medical Diagnostics Telemedicine & Smartphones chatbot diabetes digital health sleep optimization chronic pain chronic illness skin coronavirus autoimmune disease Source Type: blogs
For more than a year now, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been causing the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic with high mortality and detrimental effects on society, economy, and individual lives. Great hopes are being placed on vaccination as one of the most potent escape strategies from the pandemic and multiple vaccines are already in clinical use. However, there is still a lot of insecurity about the safety and efficacy of vaccines in patients with autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS), especially under treatment with immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive drugs. We propo...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1318:355-368. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-63761-3_21.ABSTRACTDuring the COVID-19 pandemic associated with high incidence, transmissibility, and mortality, this chapter focuses on three phases of the disease: initial exposure, initiation of the immune response to the agent, and finally, an inflammatory/autoimmune-like presentation with pulmonary, neurological, and renal failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation which occurs in a small proportion of the patients. The elegant demonstration of the site of interaction between the spike (S) protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
Authors: Mares J, Hartung HP Abstract This paper reviews currently available data on the novel coronavirus and clinical features of COVID-19, followed by a detailed section on possible modifications of immunomodulatory therapy in multiple sclerosis patients with COVID-19, based on what we know so far. There are discussed: (i) The COVID-19 disease (Epidemiological background SARS-CoV-1 coronavirus; Autoimmune response to COVID-19; Asymptomatic course; SARS-CoV-2 test; COVID-19 symptoms), (ii) Treatment of COVID-19 (Experimental plasma treatment; Antiviral therapy; Antimalarial treatment scheme; Biological treatment;...
Source: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub Source Type: research
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