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MD Anderson study shows why some brain cancers resist treatment

(University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center) Scientists at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center may have discovered why some brain cancer patients develop resistance to standard treatments including radiation and the chemotherapy agent temozolomide.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

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Authors: Vengoji R, Macha MA, Batra SK, Shonka NA Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive malignant tumors with an overall dismal survival averaging one year despite multimodality therapeutic interventions including surgery, radiotherapy and concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Few drugs are FDA approved for GBM, and the addition of temozolomide (TMZ) to standard therapy increases the median survival by only 2.5 months. Targeted therapy appeared promising in in vitro monolayer cultures, but disappointed in preclinical and clinical trials, partly due to the poor penetration of drugs through the b...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is the most common and devastating type of primary brain tumor, being considered the deadliest of human cancers. In this context, extensive efforts have been undertaken to develop new drugs that exhibit both antiproliferation and antimetastasis effects on GBM. 1,4-Naphthoquinone (1,4-NQ) scaffold has been found in compounds able to inhibit important biological targets associated with cancer, which includes DNA topoisomerase, Hsp90 and monoamine oxidase. Among potential antineoplastic 1,4-NQs is the plant-derived lapachol (2-hydroxy-3-prenyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) that was found to be active agains...
Source: Anti-Cancer Drugs - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Preclinical Reports Source Type: research
We present a patient with metastatic pancreatic cancer and an exceptional response to initial systemic chemotherapy with FOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin). Despite evidence of disease control on body imaging, he developed symptomatic lep tomeningeal disease and brain metastases 29 months into treatment. He received aggressive treatment with capecitabine and irinotecan, intrathecal topotecan, and eventually bevacizumab. He did well for 36 weeks on this regimen until developing sepsis. This patient significantly outlived his expected survival and, moreover, did so with very good quality of li...
Source: Case Reports in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Abstract Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor occurring in children, and although high long-term survival rates have been reached with current therapeutic protocols, several neurological injuries are still observed among survivors. It has been shown that the development of MB is highly dependent on the microenvironment surrounding it and that the CXCL12 chemokine and its receptor, CXCR4 and the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway are crucial for cerebellar development, coordinating proliferation and migration of embryonic cells and malfunctions in these axes can lead to MB development. Indeed, th...
Source: Acta Oncologica - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Acta Oncol Source Type: research
This study identifies glioblastoma-derived pericyte as a novel target in the brain tumor microenvironment during carcinogenesis. Here, we summarize and evaluate recent advances in the understanding of pericyte’s role in the glioblastoma microenvironment.
Source: Angiogenesis - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Authors: Miranda Kuzan-Fischer C, Juraschka K, Taylor MD Abstract Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood and remains a major cause of cancer related mortality in children. Significant scientific advancements have transformed the understanding of medulloblastoma, leading to the recognition of four distinct clinical and molecular subgroups, namely wingless (WNT), sonic hedgehog, group 3, and group 4. Subgroup classification combined with the recognition of subgroup specific molecular alterations has also led to major changes in risk stratification of medulloblastoma patients and these c...
Source: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society - Category: Neurosurgery Tags: J Korean Neurosurg Soc Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: IC can relieve the symptoms of MC and extend life expectancy. Early treatment can improve prognosis. Presence of brain metastasis, ECOG PS and IC were correlated with prognosis of patients, whereas IC is an independent prognostic factor. PMID: 29745736 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research - Category: Health Management Tags: Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res Source Type: research
In conclusion, these findings revealed that CDH2 may serve as a prognostic and predictive molecular biomarker for the grading and treatment of glioma. PMID: 29731893 [PubMed]
Source: Oncology Letters - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Lett Source Type: research
Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most aggressive brain tumors. GBM represents>50% of primary tumors of the nervous system and ~20% of intracranial neoplasms. Standard treatment involves surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. However, the prognosis of GBM is usually poor, with a median survival of 15 months. Resistance of GBM to treatment can be explained by the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) among the GBM cell population. At present, there are no effective therapeutic strategies for the elimination of CSCs. The present review examined the nature of human GBM therapeutic resistance a...
Source: International Journal of Molecular Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Int J Mol Med Source Type: research
Authors: Tong T, Pei C, Chen J, Lv Q, Zhang F, Cheng Z Abstract BACKGROUND Chemotherapy can cause adverse effects such as chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment (CRCI). In this prospective study, the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine acupuncture therapy in relieving CRCI and its impact on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eighty patients were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group with 40 patients in each group. The treatment group was treated at the following acupuncture points: Baihui (DU20), Sishencong (EX-HN1), Shenting (DU24), Zusa...
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
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