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MD Anderson study shows why some brain cancers resist treatment

(University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center) Scientists at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center may have discovered why some brain cancer patients develop resistance to standard treatments including radiation and the chemotherapy agent temozolomide.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news

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This report demonstrates that although cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma that present as brain metastases typically carry a poor prognosis, with early and aggressive treatment patients can survive well past one year after diagnosis.Case Rep Oncol 2017;10:938 –944
Source: Case Reports in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: November 2017 Source:Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 66, Supplement Author(s): A.C. Padin, S.J. Wilson, R. Glaser, W.B. Malarkey, J.K. Kiecolt-Glaser Cancer-related distress is common among breast cancer survivors prior to treatment and is associated with adverse health effects. Moreover, many survivors continue to experience distress after treatment ends, and the impact of prolonged cancer-related distress on health is unknown. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of cancer-related distress on inflammation changes among breast cancer survivors. In a parent study, survivors s...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusions Years after treatment completion, patients who had received chemotherapy and/or radiation exhibited signs of cellular aging, which were in turn associated with elevated inflammatory markers and behavioral symptoms. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether treatment-induced accelerated aging may lead to inflammation and associated behavioral disturbances in cancer survivors.
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Adolescents and young adults (AYA) comprise a specific group of oncology patients with a distinct biological and epidemiological spectrum of central nervous system neoplasms. It has been well documented that they differ clinically, especially in relation to prognosis and chemotherapy tolerance; however, the underlying reasons for this are unclear. Recent advances in the genomics of both childhood and adult brain tumors have provided new explanations and insights into the previously described age‐dependent heterogeneity. Herein, we summarize the current state of the AYA population in neuro‐oncology, specificall...
Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: AYA ONCOLOGY: REVIEW Source Type: research
A 47-year-old woman with metastatic, poorly differentiated lung cancer with neuroendocrine features was brought to the hospital after 4 days of nausea, vomiting, disorientation, and 1 generalized tonic clonic seizure. On examination, her blood pressure was 148/95 mm Hg, heart rate 95 bpm, and temperature 36.4°C. She was encephalopathic and had cortical blindness. She had no history of seizures or visual impairment. MRI brain without contrast showed changes consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES; figure, A). She had been on nivolumab, of which she had received 2 doses; the last dose was 24 da...
Source: Neurology Clinical Practice - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: MRI, Other cerebrovascular disease/ Stroke, All Clinical Neurology, Chemotherapy-tumor Case Source Type: research
Conclusions In the management of brain metastases from NSCLC, overall utilization of an intracranial radiosurgery alone treatment strategy has increased over the past decade. Despite this, there appear to be significant geographic variations and disparities remain based on patient income level and race. Further study is needed to define the reasons for these disparities and appropriate actions to mitigate them.
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewOver 25% of patients with metastatic breast cancer will develop brain metastases. Recent advances in systemic therapy, especially molecularly targeted agents, have improved control of extracranial disease, but have had limited effect on intracranial disease. In this review, we discuss the barriers and challenges associated with employing systemic therapy to treat brain metastases. We also provide an overview of current systemic therapy used as standard of care in all subtypes of breast cancer that have metastasized to the brain, as well as describe novel agents that are currently under study in pre...
Source: Current Breast Cancer Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study, we have shown that the lipid chaperones FABP4/FABP5 are critical intermediate factors in the deterioration of metabolic systems during aging. Consistent with their roles in chronic inflammation and insulin resistance in young prediabetic mice, we found that FABPs promote the deterioration of glucose homeostasis; metabolic tissue pathologies, particularly in white and brown adipose tissue and liver; and local and systemic inflammation associated with aging. A systematic approach, including lipidomics and pathway-focused transcript analysis, revealed that calorie restriction (CR) and Fabp4/5 deficiency result ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
CONCLUSIONSBrain metastases remain a common source of systemic treatment failure. The OS for patients with MBM has improved significantly. Further research into MBM prevention is needed. Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
Source: Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Abstract Glioblastoma is a lethal form of brain tumour usually treated by surgical resection followed by radiotherapy and an alkylating chemotherapeutic agent. Key to the success of this multimodal approach is maintaining apoptotic sensitivity of tumour cells to the alkylating agent. This initial treatment likely establishes conditions contributing to development of drug resistance as alkylating agents form the O(6)-methylguanine adduct. This activates the mismatch repair (MMR) process inducing apoptosis and mutagenesis. This review describes key juxtaposed drivers in the balance between alkylation induced mutagen...
Source: Cancer Biology and Therapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Cancer Biol Ther Source Type: research
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