Predisposing conditions for bacterial meningitis in children: what radiologists need to know

AbstractA variety of underlying diseases can predispose infants and children to bacterial meningitis (BM). For the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of its recurrence, radiologists should be familiar with its predisposing conditions so that they can suggest the appropriate imaging approach. Predisposing conditions of BM can be broadly classified into two categories: infection spread from the adjacent tissue to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space and immunodeficiency. Diseases in the former category are further divided according to regardless of whether there is a structural defect between the CSF space and the adjacent tissue. When a structural defect is suspected in a patient with BM, computed tomography (CT) of the head and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are first-line imaging examinations. Radionuclide cisternography should be implemented as a second-line step to identify the CSF leak site. In patients with suspected parameningeal infection without any structural defect, such as sinusitis or otitis media/mastoiditis, CT or MR images can identify not only the disease itself but also the associated intracranial complications. The purpose of this article is to discuss the diagnostic approach and imaging findings associated with the variety of conditions predisposing patients to recurrent BM, focusing on the role of radiology in their management.
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research

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Rev Argent Microbiol. 2021 Apr 16:S0325-7541(21)00041-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ram.2021.02.007. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTStreptococcus pneumoniae is an important causal agent of pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, bacteremia, and otitis media. Penicillin resistance rates in S. pneumoniae have remained stable in Argentina in the last years. In the late '90s more isolates with MIC of penicillin ≥2μg/ml were observed; however, their frequency has decreased in recent years. The phenotypic expression of penicillin resistance is due to a modification in penicillin-binding proteins associated with a mosaic structure in the coding ...
Source: Revista Argentina de Microbiologia - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, we determined the relationship between binding of IgG or IgM and the bacterial survival in normal human serum for 267 invasive H. influenzae strains from Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands, of which the majority (200 [75%]) were NTHi. NTHi bacteria opsonized with high levels of IgM had the lowest survival in human serum. IgM binding to the bacterial surface, but not IgG binding, was shown to be associated with complement-mediated killing of NTHi strains. We conclude that evasion of IgM binding by NTHi strains increases survival in blood, thereby potentially contributing to their ability to cause severe invasive diseases.
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Molecular Pathogenesis Source Type: research
In this study, a novel DNA-based bioassay was developed to the monitoring of Haemophilus influenza genome in human plasma samples using binding of pDNA with cDNA. DNA hybridization strategy was used to investigation of DNAs binding. For this purpose, silver nanoparticle doped graphene quantum dots inks functionalized by D-penicillamine (Ag NPs-DPA-GQDs) were synthesized and deposited on the surface of glass carbon electrode (GCE). Also, gold nanoparticles functionalized with cysteamine (CysA-AuNPs) were deposited on the surface of the Ag-DPA-GQDs modified GCE. Afterward, thiolated DNA probe was immobilized on the surface o...
Source: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Int J Biol Macromol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Neurological symptoms occurring after air flight should prompt proper investigation. Otitis media and sinusitis are common primary focuses of bacterial meningitis. Severe complications of air flight barotrauma may be underreported. PMID: 31964437 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Laryngology and Otology - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: J Laryngol Otol Source Type: research
Outbreaks of severe pneumococcal disease occur sporadically and can affect large numbers of individuals, although they are less frequent compared to the pre-antibiotic era.1 The responsible pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae, is a Gram-positive bacterium that commonly colonises the nasopharyngeal tract, especially in young children. Occasionally, however, it can invade locally to cause mucosal infections including sinusitis, otitis media or pneumonia. Rarely, invasion of the bloodstream can lead to more serious infections, including septicaemia and meningitis.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Outbreaks of severe pneumococcal disease occur sporadically and can affect large numbers of individuals, although they are less frequent compared to the pre-antibiotic era.1 The responsible pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae, is a Gram-positive bacterium that commonly colonises the nasopharyngeal tract, especially in young children. Occasionally, however, it can invade locally to cause mucosal infections including sinusitis, otitis media or pneumonia. Rarely, invasion of the bloodstream can lead to more serious infections, including septicaemia and meningitis.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a major cause of acute otitis media, sinusitis, pneumonia and meningitis worldwide [1]. More than 1.2 million infant deaths are attributed to S. pneumoniae annually [2].
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research
Conclusions: GAS brain abscess is a rare infection; however its incidence may be rising. We suggest that if patients show symptoms such as fever, vomiting and lethargy, with contiguous infection such as otitis media, mastoiditis, sinusitis or meningitis, GAS brain abscess should be suspected. Prognosis is expected to be good with early implementation of appropriate treatment.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The results from this study suggest that our NTHi AOM coinfection model is useful for assessing protein vaccines. PMID: 30136923 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
Calvin Green, Christine Ann Moore, Akhilesh Mahajan, Kailash BajajJournal of Global Infectious Diseases 2018 10(3):159-162 Streptococcus pneumoniae is a bacterium responsible for a spectrum of diseases including lobar pneumonia, meningitis, otitis media, and sinusitis. Invasive pneumococcal disease is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality across the world. Concerted efforts led to the development of two vaccinations, Pneumova × 23 and Prevnar 13, for the prevention of pneumococcal disease. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides vacc...
Source: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
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