Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1651: Large-Scale International Validation of an Indirect ELISA Based on Recombinant Nucleocapsid Protein of Rift Valley Fever Virus for the Detection of IgG Antibody in Domestic Ruminants

Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 1651: Large-Scale International Validation of an Indirect ELISA Based on Recombinant Nucleocapsid Protein of Rift Valley Fever Virus for the Detection of IgG Antibody in Domestic Ruminants Viruses doi: 10.3390/v13081651 Authors: Janusz T. Pawęska Petrus Jansen van Vuren Veerle Msimang Modu Moustapha Lô Yaya Thiongane Leopold K. Mulumba-Mfumu Alqadasi Mansoor José M. Fafetine Joseph W. Magona Hiver Boussini Barbara Bażanow William C. Wilson Michel Pepin Hermann Unger Gerrit Viljoen Diagnostic performance of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) based on a recombinant nucleocapsid protein (rNP) of the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) was validated for the detection of the IgG antibody in sheep (n = 3367), goat (n = 2632), and cattle (n = 3819) sera. Validation data sets were dichotomized according to the results of a virus neutralization test in sera obtained from RVF-endemic (Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique, Senegal, Uganda, and Yemen) and RVF-free countries (France, Poland, and the USA). Cut-off values were defined using the two-graph receiver operating characteristic analysis. Estimates of the diagnostic specificity of the RVFV rNP I-ELISA in animals from RVF-endemic countries ranged from 98.6% (cattle) to 99.5% (sheep) while in those originating from RVF-free countries, they ranged from 97.7% (sheep) to 98.1% (goats). Estimates of the diagnostic sensitivity in r...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research

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are typically caused by opportunistic fungal pathogens in immunocompromised hosts. However, invasive disease can occur in immunocompetent individuals if the exposure is high or with primary (dimorphic) fungal pathogens (causes of endemic mycoses including Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Paracoccidioides and Talaromyces spp.). Systemic fungal infections originate either in the lungs (Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Mucorales, as a result of inhalation) or from endogenous flora (Candida spp.
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Fungal infections Source Type: research
This study was supported in part by the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Disease, a division of the National Institutes of Health (R01AI132140), and Anivive Lifesciences, Inc.A version of this article originally appeared on the University of Arizona Health Sciences website:https://healthsciences.arizona.edu/newsroom/news-releases/2021/study-shows-vaccine-protects-dogs-against-valley-fever.
Source: The University of Arizona: Health - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Source Type: research
Vaccine. 2021 Oct 22:S0264-410X(21)01349-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.10.029. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCoccidioidomycosis is a significant health problem of dogs and humans in endemic regions, especially California and Arizona in the U.S. Both species would greatly benefit from a vaccine to prevent this disease. A live avirulent vaccine candidate, Δcps1, was tested for tolerability and efficacy to prevent pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in a canine challenge model. Vaccine injection-site reactions were transient and there were no systemic effects observed. Six of seven vaccine sites tested and all draining lymph ...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Oct 25:tpmd210188. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0188. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted phlebovirus (Family: Phenuiviridae, Order: Bunyavirales) causing severe neonatal mortality and abortion primarily in domestic ruminants. The susceptibility of young domestic swine to RVFV and this species' role in geographic expansion and establishment of viral endemicity is unclear. Six commercially bred Landrace-cross piglets were inoculated subcutaneously with 105 plaque-forming units of RVFV ZH501 strain and two piglets received a sham inoculum. All animals ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis review discusses the epidemiology, microbiology and pathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of coccidioidomycosis in solid organ transplant recipients.Recent FindingsCoccidioidomycosis is associated with a high mortality in solid organ transplant recipients than in immunocompetent individuals. Within the endemic area, strategies to reduce the incidence and mortality among solid organ transplant recipients include pretransplantation screening and treatment of coccidioidomycosis among donors and recipients, use of universal azole prophylaxis after transplantation, and more aggressive ...
Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
AbstractRift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis that threatens public health and animal agriculture in the endemic areas causing devastating epizootics characterized by abortion storms and high mortalities, especially in newborn animals. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and investigate risk factors associated with exposure to the virus in camels slaughtered in Maiduguri abattoir, Borno State of Nigeria. Camels presented for slaughtered were sampled and data on age, sex, source or origin, utility, presence of post-mortem lesions, body weights and body condition sco...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic infection caused by dimorphic fungi Coccidioides spp. endemic to Southwestern United States and Central and South America. A history of residence and travel in these areas is esse...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Case report Source Type: research
This study evaluates the drivers of livestock farmers’ KBM of ADs from a sample of 629 respondents selected using a three-stage sampling procedure in Kenya’s three h otspot counties of Baringo, Kwale, and Kilifi. A multivariate fractional probit model was used to assess the factors influencing the intensity of KBM. Only a quarter of the farmers had any knowledge of ADs while over four-fifths of them could not manage any of the three diseases. Access to informati on (experience and awareness), income, education, religion, and distance to a health facility considerably influenced the intensity of farmers’ K...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
by Sudha Chaturvedi, Tanya R. Victor, Anuradha Marathe, Ketevan Sidamonidze, Kelly L. Crucillo, Vishnu Chaturvedi Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever) is a pulmonary and systemic fungal disease with increasing incidence and expanding endemic areas. The differentiation of etiologic agentsCoccidioides immitis andC.posadasii remains problematic in the clinical laboratories as conventional PCR and satellite typing schemes are not facile. Therefore, we developed Cy5- and FAM-labeled TaqMan-probes for duplex real-time PCR assay for rapid differentiation ofC.immitis andC.posadasii from culture and clinical specimens. TheRRA2 gene e...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
by Kaori Terasaki, Birte Kalveram, Kendra N. Johnson, Terry Juelich, Jennifer K. Smith, Lihong Zhang, Alexander N. Freiberg, Shinji Makino Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus with a wide host range including ruminants and humans. RVFV outbreaks have had devastating effects on public health and the livestock industry in African countries. However, there is no approved RVFV vaccine for human use in non-endemic countries and no FDA-approved antiviral drug for RVFV treatment. The RVFV 78kDa protein (P78), which is a membrane glycoprotein, plays a role in virus dissemination in the mosquito host, but ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
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