Introduction to novel developments in radio-imaging and radiotherapy

Clin Exp Metastasis. 2021 Aug 13. doi: 10.1007/s10585-021-10114-x. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRadiation therapy has long been known to be a very effective form of therapy in relieving symptoms and prolonging the life of patients with brain metastases. Novel developments in this field have allowed oncologists to improve on older forms of radiation therapy; these recent advances in radiotherapeutic techniques (stereotactic radiosurgery and hippocampal-avoidant whole brain radiation therapy) allow sparing of the healthy brain from receiving unnecessary radiation while delivering effective treatment to the metastases, thus improving the quality of life for surviving patients. Furthermore, multiple clinical trials have documented the increased loco-regional control in the brain when radiosurgery is interdigitated with immune check point inhibitors for treatment of melanoma brain metastases. Mild hyperthermia has been used for decades as an adjuvant to radiotherapy in the treatment of radiation resistant cancers; lately, however, thermal therapies, such as hyperthermia, cryoablation, radiofrequency ablation and high intensity focused ultrasound are being investigated to provide a new ablative approach to cancer while thermoacoustic imaging and thermometry have recently been proposed as new techniques for monitoring tissue temperature in the breast during ablation treatment. In addition, other hybrid techniques have emerged that combine ultrasounds with other forms of energy such...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research

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This study assessed the presentation and institutional outcomes treating brain metastases (BM) of breast cancer (BC), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and melanoma origin.MethodsPatients with brain metastases treated between 2014 and 2019 with primary melanoma, NSCLC, and BC were identified. Overall survival (OS) was calculated from dates of initial BM diagnosis using the Kaplan –Meier method.ResultsA total of 959 patients were identified including melanoma (31%), NSCLC (51%), and BC (18%). Patients with BC were younger at BM diagnosis (median age: 57) than NSCLC (65) and melanoma patients (62,p 
Source: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Patients receiving SRS versus whole brain RT and systemic therapy reported better posttreatment hrQoL. In addition, melanoma metastases, nonmarried, male, and older patients with reported better hrQoL in various as well as domains after intracranial RT.
Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles: Central Nervous System Source Type: research
lessandra Tessitore The advent of Next Generation Sequencing technologies brought with it the discovery of several microRNA (miRNA) variants of heterogeneous lengths and/or sequences. Initially ascribed to sequencing errors/artifacts, these isoforms, named isomiRs, are now considered non-canonical variants that originate from physiological processes affecting the canonical miRNA biogenesis. To date, accurate IsomiRs abundance, biological activity, and functions are not completely understood; however, the study of isomiR biology is an area of great interest due to their high frequency in the human miRNome, their putativ...
Source: Genes - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
ConclusionsOverall, BM indicates poor patient outcome. Treatment with ICIs improves survival of patients with NSCLC, TNBC, and melanoma and BM; however, no significant improvement was observed in RCC. Investigations to identify prognostic features, oncogenomic profiles, and predictive biomarkers are warranted.
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Patients receiving SRS versus whole brain RT and systemic therapy reported better posttreatment hrQoL. In addition, melanoma metastases, nonmarried, male, and older patients with reported better hrQoL in various as well as domains after intracranial RT.PMID:34392256 | DOI:10.1097/COC.0000000000000848
Source: Clinical Lung Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: These data support the hypothesis that there is a nonuniform spatial distribution of brain metastasis to preferential brain regions that varies according to cancer subtype in patients treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery. These topographic patterns may be indicative of the abilities of various cancers to adapt to regional neural microenvironments, facilitate colonization, and establish metastasis. Although the brain microenvironment likely modulates selective seeding of metastasis, it remains unknown how the anatomical spatial distribution of brain metastasis varies according to primary cancer subtype and con...
Source: Journal of Neurosurgery - Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Source Type: research
Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2021 Jul 12. doi: 10.1038/s41571-021-00529-6. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe protective blood-brain barrier has a major role in ensuring normal brain function by severely limiting and tightly controlling the ingress of substances into the brain from the circulation. In primary brain tumours, such as glioblastomas, as well as in brain metastases from cancers in other organs, including lung and breast cancers and melanoma, the blood-brain barrier is modified and is referred to as the blood-tumour barrier (BTB). Alterations in the BTB affect its permeability, and this structure participates in reciproca...
Source: Clinical Breast Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
ChemMedChem. 2021 Jun 22. doi: 10.1002/cmdc.202100363. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSince the revelation of noscapine's weak anti-mitotic activity, extensive research has been conducted over the past two decades, with the goal of discovering noscapine derivatives with improved potency. To date, noscapine has been explored at the 1, 7, 6', and 9'-positions, though the 1,3-benzodioxole motif in the noscapine scaffold that remains unexplored. The present investigation describes the design, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of noscapine analogues consisting of modifications to the 1,3-benzodioxole moiety. This includes...
Source: ChemMedChem - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
June 1, 2021 (RARITAN, N.J.) – The Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson &Johnson announced today that more than 30 company-sponsored studies, including six oral presentations, will be featured during the 2021 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, June 4-8. Janssen presentations will include new data and updates for both approved and investigational therapeutics that are being studied for the treatment of various solid tumors and blood cancers. Immediately following ASCO, additional data will be featured during the European Hematology Association (EHA) Virtual Congress, June 9-17. A c...
Source: Johnson and Johnson - Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Innovation Source Type: news
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