Breaking It Down: Investigation of Binge Eating Components in Animal Models to Enhance Translation

Binge eating (BE) is a core eating disorder behavior that is present across nearly all eating disorder diagnoses (e. g., bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, anorexia nervosa binge/purge subtype), and is also widely present in the general population. Despite the prevalence of BE, limited treatment options exist and there are often high rates of relapse after treatment. There is evidence showing that genetic factors contribute to the heritability of BE and support for biological contributions to BE. However, more work is needed to fully understand neurobiological mechanisms underlying BE. One approach to target this problem is to separate BE into its distinct clinical components that can be more easily modeled using pre-clinical approaches. To date, a variety of animal models for BE have been used in pre-clinical studies; but there have been challenges translating this work to human BE. Here, we review these pre-clinical approaches by breaking them down into three clinically-significant component parts (1) consumption of a large amount of food; (2) food consumption within a short period of time; and (3) loss of control over eating. We propose that this rubric identifies the most frequently used and effective ways to model components of BE behavior using pre-clinical approaches with the strongest clinical relevance. Finally, we discuss how current pre-clinical models have been integrated with techniques using targeted neurobiological approaches and propose ways to improve tr...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

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Nervenarzt. 2021 Oct 7. doi: 10.1007/s00115-021-01191-0. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAn overview of eating and feeding disorders according to the future criteria of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) is presented, including information on differential diagnosis, epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis as well as therapy. Binge-eating disorder is new and the most frequent eating disorder. While anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa mostly affect women, the gender ratio in binge-eating disorder is more balanced. Concerning etiology, socio-cultural, biological and psychological factors are discussed. Cognitiv...
Source: Der Nervenarzt - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Eat Behav. 2021 Sep 11;43:101566. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2021.101566. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTVaping is common among college-age young adults. Preliminary research has shown associations between vaping and eating disorder symptoms, however, there remain gaps in this knowledge among college students. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between vaping and a self-reported lifetime eating disorder diagnosis and eating disorder risk among a large sample of college students. Cross-sectional data from the 2018-2019 national (U.S.) Healthy Minds Study (n = 51,231) were analyzed. Multiple logistic regressio...
Source: Eating Behaviors - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Source Type: research
This study aims to evaluate the effect of a specialized inpatient treatment characterized by both an intensive and comprehensive standardized multidisciplinary program based on cognitive-behavioral therapy and a flexible and personalized component implemented by third-wave interventions. A cohort of 67 female ED patients (anorexia nervosa = 28, bulimia nervosa = 28, and binge eating disorder = 11) underwent an evaluation of emotional regulation difficulties, alexithymia, and dissociative symptomatology at admission to a specialized ED ward. The psychological modifications were subsequently re-evaluated upon discharge, afte...
Source: Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Source Type: research
This study aims to evaluate the effect of a specialized inpatient treatment characterized by both an intensive and comprehensive standardized multidisciplinary programme based on cognitive-behavioural therapy and a flexible and personalized component implemented by third-wave interventions. A cohort of 67 female ED patients (anorexia nervosa = 28, bulimia nervosa = 28 and binge eating disorder = 11) underwent an evaluation of emotional regulation difficulties, alexithymia and dissociative symptomatology at admission to a specialized ED ward. The psychological modifications were subsequently re-evaluated upon discharge, aft...
Source: Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Source Type: research
The objective of this article was to systematically review the literature investigating socioeconomic diversity in distinct ED diagnoses. A PRISMA search was conducted to identify studies that empirically assessed the association between ED pathology and indicators of SES via PubMed and PsycINFO. This search generated 13,538 articles, of which 62 articles published between 1973 and August 2020 met criteria for inclusion in the review. Included studies were primarily cross-sectional and covered diagnoses of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED), with quality ratings of poor, fair, and ...
Source: Eating Behaviors - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Source Type: research
Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, female athlete triad, bulimia nervosa, obesity, and binge eating initially emerge during adolescence. These disorders are present primarily in females, but males may also present with these conditions. Dentistry has a pivotal role in the management of patients with such diet-related disorders. Because dentists examine their patients at frequent intervals and may be the health care professionals with whom patients feel more comfortable discussing eating disorders, dentists must have knowledge of the etiology, diagnostic criteria, systemic effects, and intraoral manifestations of ea...
Source: Dental Clinics of North America - Category: Dentistry Authors: Source Type: research
The objective is to estimate the prevalence of binge-eating disorder (BED) and subclinical BED in children and adolescents. Relevant articles were searched in the databases of PubMED and PsycINFO. Articles were included if they measured BED, subclinical BED, binge eating and/or loss of control (LOC) eating in samples of up to 20  years of age or with a mean age below 20 years. Subclinical BED covers participants with 
Source: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
The objective of this review is to discuss a potential overlapping neurobiological mechanism for this comorbidity. Alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission have been observed in all four of the aforementioned disorders. Excessive excitation via glutamate contributes to excitotoxicity, and over-activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, both of which have implications for the deterioration of various brain structures. Prominent structures impacted include the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and prefrontal cortex, all of which are integral to the regulation of stress and eating. The current review suggests that ...
Source: Appetite - Category: Nutrition Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that individuals with eating disorders face substantial delays in accessing appropriate treatment and that latency to treatment-seeking is often magnified for counter-stereotypical eating disorder presentations. Further research is required to investigate other factors contributing to this delay.PMID:34250844 | DOI:10.1177/00048674211020102
Source: The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsPeople with EDs and their carers are aware of the potential benefits of online self-help despite having little experience with this form of intervention. A stepped-care approach that utilizes technology-based interventions as a first step and makes such interventions available directly to the consumer may fit the attitudes and needs of stakeholders. The study provides a foundation for future research on design and delivery of ED online self-help.
Source: The European Journal of Public Health - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
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