Role of Exosomes in Islet Transplantation

Exosomes are known for their ability to transport nucleic acid, lipid, and protein molecules, which allows for communication between cells and tissues. The cargo of the exosomes can have a variety of effects on a wide range of targets to mediate biological function. Pancreatic islet transplantation is a minimally invasive cell replacement therapy to prevent or reverse diabetes mellitus and is currently performed in patients with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes or chronic pancreatitis. Exosomes have become a focus in the field of islet transplantation for the study of diagnostic markers of islet cell viability and function. A growing list of miRNAs identified from exosomes collected during the process of isolating islets can be used as diagnostic biomarkers of islet stress and damage, leading to a better understanding of critical steps of the isolation procedure that can be improved to increase islet yield and quality. Exosomes have also been implicated as a possible contributor to islet graft rejection following transplantation, as they carry donor major histocompatibility complex molecules, which are then processed by recipient antigen-presenting cells and sensed by the recipient immune cells. Exosomes may find their way into the therapeutic realm of islet transplantation, as exosomes isolated from mesenchymal stem cells have shown promising results in early studies that have seen increased viability and functionality of isolated and grafted islets in vitro as well as in vivo. ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

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AbstractAn 82  year-old female patient not suffering from diabetes was transported to our hospital with hyperglycemia (HbA1c 8.2%, blood glucose 584 mg/dL) and mildly increased levels of pancreatic exocrine enzymes (amylase 543 IU/L, lipase 59 U/L, elastase-1 479 ng/dL), while there were no findings indicati ng pancreatitis. Under a diagnosis of new-onset diabetes, she was discharged with oral hypoglycemic agents, as retention of insulin secretion function [blood glucose 117 mg/dL, serum connecting peptide immunoreactivity (CPR) 1.63 ng/mL] with normalization of the enzymes was confirmed ...
Source: Diabetology International - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Chem Biol Interact. 2021 Jun 18:109560. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2021.109560. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCytolytic pore-forming protein, perforin, has been associated with autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) once released from CD8+ T cells. Curiously, perforinopathy has also been implicated in numerous brain diseases. Therefore, inhibitors of perforin have been in demand with targeted delivery in mind. L-Type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is known to be expressed in both the above-mentioned target tissues, in the pancreas as well as in the brain. Thus, in the present study, t...
Source: Chemico-Biological Interactions - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: This unique case highlights an uncommon but critical consequence of uncontrolled DM. It brings forth the possibility of severe HTG presenting as a complication of uncontrolled type-2 DM. Severe HTG commonly presents with acute pancreatitis, which can be debilitating if not managed promptly. Most patients with this presentation are managed with insulin infusion. The use of plasmapheresis for management of severe HTG has not been well studied. Our case supports the use of plasmapheresis as an effective and rapid treatment for severe HTG.
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
ConclusionsPeople with PPDM have a higher risk of cancer mortality compared with those with T2DM or T1DM. This is especially pronounced in women. Young and middle-aged adults with PPDM have a lower life expectancy compared with their counterparts with T2DM or T1DM.
Source: Acta Diabetologica - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: In 13-year's experience of SPK transplantation, patient and pancreatic graft survival and the rate of complications after pancreas transplantation were similar to those of other larger series. The medical-surgical team experience improves pancreatic graft survival without influencing patient survival. PMID: 33341241 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cirugia eEspanola - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Cir Esp Source Type: research
PMID: 33323812 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Chinese Medical Journal - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Chin Med J (Engl) Source Type: research
We report about the transition in blood glucose levels before and after the onset of fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus (FT1D) in a perinatal woman. In week 38 of pregnancy, before which the patient had normal glucose tolerance, idiopathic acute pancreatitis was diagnosed. Five days thereafter, she became hypoglycemia, we thus closely monitored her blood glucose levels. Thirteen days thereafter, she was hyperglycemia with a blood glucose level>16.0 mmol/L and HbA1c of 6.4%. Her fasting serum C ‐peptide reactivity level was 3.6 ng/mL on the 5th day, 0.2 ng/mL on the 18th day. Multiple insulin injection therapy was admi...
Source: Journal of Diabetes Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research
Authors: Sandru F, Carsote M, Valea A, Albu SE, Petca RC, Dumitrascu MC Abstract Somatostatinoma is a tumour mainly originating from pancreas or duodenum; overall with an incidence of 1/40 million persons. We introduce a narrative review of literature of somatostatinoma including the relationship with neurofibromatosis type 1. Clinical presentation includes: Diabetes mellitus, cholelithiasis, steatorrhea, abdominal pain, and obstructive jaundice while papillary tumour may cause acute pancreatitis. The neoplasia may develop completely asymptomatic or it is detected as an incidental finding during an imaging or a sur...
Source: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine - Category: General Medicine Tags: Exp Ther Med Source Type: research
Abstract Acute pancreatic injury can be related to both parenchymal (responsible for exocrine functions) and islet (mainly β-cells, responsible for endocrine functions) damage. During embryonic development, both the salivary glands and the pancreas originate from the foregut, which explains many of the observed histological and functional similarities between these two organs. The relationship between several diseases of the pancreas and salivary glands, resulting from morphological and functional similarities, is well established. Sphingolipids constitute a class of biologically active molecules involved in ...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus (FT1D) is a newly established subtype of type 1 diabetes. Its etiology has not been fully elucidated. Several cases with FT1D have exhibited pancreatitis or myocarditis.
Source: BMC Endocrine Disorders - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Case report Source Type: research
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