Borrelia Infection in Bank Voles Myodes glareolus Is Associated With Specific DQB Haplotypes Which Affect Allelic Divergence Within Individuals

The high polymorphism of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes is generally considered to be a result of pathogen-mediated balancing selection. Such selection may operate in the form of heterozygote advantage, and/or through specific MHC allele–pathogen interactions. Specific MHC allele–pathogen interactions may promote polymorphism via negative frequency-dependent selection (NFDS), or selection that varies in time and/or space because of variability in the composition of the pathogen community (fluctuating selection; FS). In addition, divergent allele advantage (DAA) may act on top of these forms of balancing selection, explaining the high sequence divergence between MHC alleles. DAA has primarily been thought of as an extension of heterozygote advantage. However, DAA could also work in concert with NFDS though this is yet to be tested explicitly. To evaluate the importance of DAA in pathogen-mediated balancing selection, we surveyed allelic polymorphism of MHC class II DQB genes in wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and tested for associations between DQB haplotypes and infection by Borrelia afzelii, a tick-transmitted bacterium causing Lyme disease in humans. We found two significant associations between DQB haplotypes and infection status: one haplotype was associated with lower risk of infection (resistance), while another was associated with higher risk of infection (susceptibility). Interestingly, allelic divergence within individuals was higher for ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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ConclusionsBorrelia infection in the setting of acute aortic pathology is a rare entity. To our knowledge, this is the first case report to demonstrate a mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm as a rare manifestation of Lyme disease. Aortic wall biopsies and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of the specimen were essential for accurate diagnosis. This finding may contribute to the understanding of the etiology of inflammatory aneurysmal disease and abdominal aneurysms in general.
Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and topical variants and forms of EF in children are associated with etiology, have different rates of complications, the nature of the course and outcomes, the knowledge of which makes it possible to optimize the diagnostic process.PMID:35038852 | DOI:10.17116/jnevro202112111286
Source: Herpes - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Vaccine. 2022 Jan 13:S0264-410X(22)00006-8. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2022.01.003. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTVaccination guidelines for dogs and cats indicate that core vaccines (for dogs, rabies, distemper, adenovirus, parvovirus; for cats, feline parvovirus, herpes virus-1, calicivirus) are essential to maintain health, and that non-core vaccines be administered according to a clinician's assessment of a pet's risk of exposure and susceptibility to infection. A reliance on individual risk assessment introduces the potential for between-practice inconsistencies in non-core vaccine recommendations. A study was initiated t...
Source: Herpes - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: This systematic review, including all reported cases and our case report, supports evidence of ocular infection ofBorrelia species. Furthermore, in case of suspicion of infection and seronegativity, it is justified to look forBorrelia in eye tissue samples. In addition, microscopy without using PCR is not sufficient to confirm the diagnosis of borreliosis on ocular tissue. In the articles studied, there was no unambiguous recommendation of treatment.Ophthalmic Res
Source: Ophthalmic Research - Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research
Neurol Sci. 2022 Jan 10. doi: 10.1007/s10072-022-05865-8. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTA 35-year-old Caucasian woman presented an abrupt onset of bilateral impaired vision, and arrived to our attention two weeks later. She had a previous episode of mild dizziness. She underwent a fluorescein angiography showing branch retinal artery occlusions and a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealing several supraand infratentorial FLAIR-hyperintense white matter lesions, two with contrast enhancement. Thrombophilic, autoimmune and infective (including Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Borrelia burgdorferi, Hepatitis B Virus, He...
Source: Herpes - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Br J Dermatol. 2022 Jan 6. doi: 10.1111/bjd.20977. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34990013 | DOI:10.1111/bjd.20977
Source: The British Journal of Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Source Type: research
This study identified and utilized isolates deficient in PFam54 to associate the defects with the absence of these proteins, building the foundation to further study the role of each PFam54 protein in contributing to Bbsl pathogenesis. Importance To establish infections, Lyme borreliae utilize various means to overcome the host's immune system. Proteins encoded by the PFam54 gene array play a role for spirochete survival in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, this gene array has been described in all currently available Lyme borreliae genomes. By investigating the first two Borrelia bavariensis isolates naturally lacking the enti...
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2022 Jan 5:aem0239121. doi: 10.1128/aem.02391-21. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn the northeastern United States, the emergence of Lyme disease has been associated, in part, with the increase of small forest patches. Such disturbed habitat is exploited by generalist species, such as white-footed mice, which are considered the host with the greatest reservoir capacity for the agents of Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto) and human babesiosis (Babesia microti). Spatial risk analyses have identified edge habitat as particularly risky. Using a retrotransposon-based quantitative PCR assay ...
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research
This study identified and utilized isolates deficient in PFam54 to associate the defects with the absence of these proteins, building the foundation to further study the role of each PFam54 protein in contributing to Bbsl pathogenesis. Importance To establish infections, Lyme borreliae utilize various means to overcome the host's immune system. Proteins encoded by the PFam54 gene array play a role for spirochete survival in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, this gene array has been described in all currently available Lyme borreliae genomes. By investigating the first two Borrelia bavariensis isolates naturally lacking the enti...
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2022 Jan 5:aem0239121. doi: 10.1128/aem.02391-21. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn the northeastern United States, the emergence of Lyme disease has been associated, in part, with the increase of small forest patches. Such disturbed habitat is exploited by generalist species, such as white-footed mice, which are considered the host with the greatest reservoir capacity for the agents of Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto) and human babesiosis (Babesia microti). Spatial risk analyses have identified edge habitat as particularly risky. Using a retrotransposon-based quantitative PCR assay ...
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research
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