Factors affecting vaccine uptake rate: the story of measles, mumps and rubella

Vaccine uptake can greatly impact on the ability of a country or region to eliminate a disease, which could be detrimental to society if allowed free reign. A high vaccine coverage can produce herd immunity, which confers protection upon the unvaccinated individuals within the population. Although some countries take a voluntary approach to vaccination policies, other countries have mandatory vaccination for specific pathogens. There is a clear inverse correlation between vaccine uptake and incidence of disease and in many countries a trivalent vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella is included in the vaccination schedule. Although naturally acquired immunity is gained from infection by the circulating wild-type virus, the live attenuated vaccine has an effect which wanes over a period of time. In recent years, there has been a global spike in the incidence of both measles and mumps and some authorities are using a third dose of the vaccine to inhibit the spread of any outbreaks which occur. Many factors, such as concerns over vaccine safety and susceptibility to disease have had an impact on vaccine uptake and media bias and misinformation have played a role. With the occurrence of a global pandemic of COVID-19 beginning in late 2019 and continuing for the duration of 2020, access to healthcare and routine vaccination have been affected and vaccine programmes interrupted because of the need for social distancing measures. This may have an impact on future generations, as...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Tags: VIROLOGY Source Type: research

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AbstractCurrently, the world is witnessing the pandemic of COVID-19, a disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Reported differences in clinical manifestations and outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 infection could be attributed to factors such as virus replication, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and altered cytokine production. Virus-induced aberrant and excessive cytokine production has been linked to the morbidity and mortality of several viral infections. Using a Luminex platform, we investigated plasma cytokine and chemokine levels of 27 analytes from hospitalized asymptomatic (n = 39) and mildly symptomatic (n = ...
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Dec 6 2021 2:00PM toJan 15 2022 12:00AMChallenge.govThe National Science Foundation is announcing the TAKING ACTION: COVID-19 DIVERSITY, EQUITY, &INCLUSION Challenge to public or private, non-profit, two- and four-year Institutions of Higher Education (IHEs)  its territories and possessions. ****Register for the December 6th 2pm webinar on preparing entries
Source: NSF Events - Category: Science Source Type: events
Source: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy - Category: Health Management Tags: Risk Management and Healthcare Policy Source Type: research
ConclusionsDuring the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020 there was a decline in all notified infectious diseases compared to the previous years, likely due to massive NPIs adoption, as well as, possibly, to decreased access to care and preventive services that caused difficulties to the surveillance system to detect notifiable infectious diseases. VCRs were still high for most important vaccines while there was a decline for other vaccines as evidence of the impact of the pandemic on vaccination activities.Key messagesNPIs had a deep impact on the reduction of airborne diseases.The decline for non-airborne infections is likely due ...
Source: The European Journal of Public Health - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Sep 3;70(35):1183-1190. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7035a1.ABSTRACTThe Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that adolescents aged 11-12 years routinely receive tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap); meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY); and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. Catch-up vaccination is recommended for hepatitis B (HepB); hepatitis A (HepA); measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR); and varicella (VAR) vaccines for adolescents whose childhood vaccinations are not current. Adolescents are also recommended to receive a booster dose of MenACWY vaccine at age...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
This study provides evidence for strengthening the infectious disease management policies in South Korea.
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Given declines in immunizations during the COVID-19 pandemic, there is reason to be concerned that measles and varicella-associated morbidity and mortality may rise. Employers, especially those with large foreign-born populations or who require international travel may want to educate their populations about common contagious illnesses and offer immunity validation or vaccinations at no or low cost.PMID:33813919 | DOI:10.1177/21501327211005902
Source: Primary Care - Category: Primary Care Authors: Source Type: research
When does a pandemic end? Is it when life regains a semblance of normality? Is it when the world reaches herd immunity, the benchmark at which enough people are immune to an infectious disease to stop its widespread circulation? Or is it when the disease is defeated, the last patient cured and the pathogen retired to the history books? The last scenario, in the case of COVID-19, is likely a ways off, if it ever arrives. The virus has infected more than 100 million people worldwide and killed more than 2 million. New viral variants even more contagious than those that started the pandemic are spreading across the world. And...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Cover Story COVID-19 feature Magazine Source Type: news
Here’s betting you wouldn’t want anyone blowing smallpox scabs up your nose. But you might feel differently if you lived in 15th century China. Long ago, the Chinese recognized that people who had contracted smallpox once were immune to reinfection. They came up with the idea of preserving scabs from individuals who had suffered mild cases, drying them out, crushing them to a powder and blowing them up the nostril. For boys it was the right nostril, for girls it was the left because, well, 15th century. That is how the story of vaccines usually begins, though that version is decidedly incomplete. For one thing,...
Source: TIME: Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Uncategorized COVID-19 Explainer health Source Type: news
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