New Aspects of Diabetes Research and Therapeutic Development

Pharmacol Rev. 2021 Jul;73(3):1001-1015. doi: 10.1124/pharmrev.120.000160.ABSTRACTBoth type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are advancing at exponential rates, placing significant burdens on health care networks worldwide. Although traditional pharmacologic therapies such as insulin and oral antidiabetic stalwarts like metformin and the sulfonylureas continue to be used, newer drugs are now on the market targeting novel blood glucose-lowering pathways. Furthermore, exciting new developments in the understanding of beta cell and islet biology are driving the potential for treatments targeting incretin action, islet transplantation with new methods for immunologic protection, and the generation of functional beta cells from stem cells. Here we discuss the mechanistic details underlying past, present, and future diabetes therapies and evaluate their potential to treat and possibly reverse type 1 and 2 diabetes in humans. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions in the developed and developing world alike. As the last several years have seen many new developments in the field, a new and up to date review of these advances and their careful evaluation will help both clinical and research diabetologists to better understand where the field is currently heading.PMID:34193595 | DOI:10.1124/pharmrev.120.000160
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Source Type: research

Related Links:

ConclusionOur study demonstrated that despite decreased compliance with diet and exercise, and difficulty in accessing medication, there was no significant change in weight, FPG and HbA1c levels in diabetic patients. Since cultural differences, education level and socioeconomic opportunities differ between societies, national and international studies will be more accurate to evaluate the effects of epidemics on the course of chronic diseases.
Source: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
AbstractDiabetes mellitus (DM) augments the risk of hospitalization and mortality resulting from viral, bacterial, or fungal pathogen infection. This has been also true for the past SARS and MERS, and current SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus epidemics. Clinical data indicate that SARS-CoV-2 infection triggers a severe course of COVID-19 more frequently in diabetic than non-diabetic patients. Here we overview the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with this phenomenon. We focus on alterations in the immune cells, especially monocytes and macrophages, involved in innate immune response and inflammatory processes, which diffe...
Source: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Authors: Frazier AR Abstract Diabetes is a growing epidemic worldwide and among our active duty population, posing a significant threat to maintaining military health and operational readiness. Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is a growing clinical phenotype of diabetes, with overlap between traditional type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this case, a 27-year-old active duty male presented with polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and recent weight loss. He was diagnosed with LADA, placed on a period of limited duty status and started on insulin. Eight months after diagnosis, he was tr...
Source: Military Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Mil Med Source Type: research
Conclusions: The presented study is the first Polish study on the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy presenting a large group of patients, and its results could be extrapolated to the whole country. Diabetic retinopathy was found in 25.48% of patients in the whole experimental group. The above results place Poland within the European average, indicating the quality of diabetic care offered in Poland, based on the number of observed complications. PMID: 32268561 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Medicina (Kaunas) - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Medicina (Kaunas) Source Type: research
Abstract Mild to moderate cognitive decrements are a well-known phenomenon associated with diabetes mellitus. In this review, we provide an overview of the cognitive consequences of type 1 and type 2 diabetes based on hallmark studies that follow patients over an extended period of time. In patients with type 1 diabetes, cognitive dysfunction appears soon after diagnosis and can be found in individuals of any age. The magnitude of these effects is generally modest, although their severity is especially pronounced in those with early onset type 1 diabetes (diagnosis before 7 years of age) or those who have develo...
Source: Neurobiology of Disease - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neurobiol Dis Source Type: research
Authors: Spallone V Abstract The burden of diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is expected to increase due to the diabetes epidemic and its early and widespread appearance. CAN has a definite prognostic role for mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. Putative mechanisms for this are tachycardia, QT interval prolongation, orthostatic hypotension, reverse dipping, and impaired heart rate variability, while emerging mechanisms like inflammation support the pervasiveness of autonomic dysfunction. Efforts to overcome CAN under-diagnosis are on the table: by promoting screening for symptoms and signs; by ...
Source: Diabetes and Metabolism Journal - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Diabetes Metab J Source Type: research
ConclusionsOverall, two thirds of the pediatric T2DM guidelines were moderate to low quality and the remaining third ranked higher in quality. Low quality was especially due to the scores for the “Rigour of Development” domain, which directly measures guideline development methodology. It is important that future guidelines and updates of existing guidelines improve the methodology of development and quality of reporting in order to appropriately guide physicians managing children and ad olescents with T2DM.Systematic review registrationPROSPEROCRD42016034187
Source: Systematic Reviews - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2 have become a global epidemic with dramatically increasing incidences. Poorly controlled diabetes is associated with severe life-threatening complications. Beside traditional treatment with insulin and oral anti-diabetic drugs, clinicians try to improve patient's care by cell therapies using embryonic stem cells (ESC), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). ESC display a virtually unlimited plasticity, including the differentiation into insulin producing β-cells, but they raise ethical concerns and bear, like iPSC, the risk of tumours.
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2 have become a global epidemic with dramatically increasing incidences. Poorly controlled diabetes is associated with severe life-threatening complications. Beside traditional treatment with insulin and oral anti-diabetic drugs, clinicians try to improve patient's care by cell therapies using embryonic stem cells (ESC), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). ESC display a virtually unlimited plasticity, including the differentiation into insulin producing β-cells, but they raise ethical concerns and bear, like iPSC, the risk of tumours.
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Maternal diabetes is a growing epidemic and poses significant risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. The aim of this study is to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of maternal C-reactive protein levels across the course of pregnancy. We hypothesize that inflammation as measured by C-reactive protein, would be increased in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) compared to nondiabetic subjects.
Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: Poster Session V Source Type: research
More News: Allergy & Immunology | Biology | Diabetes | Diabetes Mellitus | Diabetes Type 1 | Diabetes Type 2 | Drugs & Pharmacology | Endocrinology | Epidemics | Epidemiology | Fortamet | Health Management | Incretin Therapy | Insulin | Metformin | Stem Cell Therapy | Stem Cells | Transplants