The Role of Exosomes in the Treatment, Prevention, Diagnosis, and Pathogenesis of COVID-19

Eur J Pediatr Surg DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1731294The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), continues to be a major health concern. In search for novel treatment strategies against COVID-19, exosomes have attracted the attention of scientists and pharmaceutical companies worldwide. Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles, secreted by all types of cells, and considered as key mediators of intercellular communication and stem-cell paracrine signaling. Herein, we reviewed the most recent literature about the role of exosomes as potential agents for treatment, prevention, diagnosis, and pathogenesis of COVID-19. Several studies and ongoing clinical trials have been investigating the anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and reparative effects of exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem/stromal cells for COVID-19-related acute lung injury. Other studies reported that exosomes play a key role in convalescent plasma therapy for COVID-19, and that they could be of use for the treatment of COVID-19 Kawasaki's-like multisystem inflammatory syndrome and as drug delivery nanocarriers for antiviral therapy. Harnessing some advantageous aspects of exosome biology, such as their endogenous origin, capability of crossing biological barriers, high stability in circulation, and low toxicity and immunogenicity, several companies have been testing exosome-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. As they carry cargos t...
Source: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

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Innate Immun. 2021 Sep 15:17534259211043159. doi: 10.1177/17534259211043159. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBoth innate immunity and acquired immunity are involved in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The induction of Abs that neutralize the virus has been described, and certain Abs against endemic coronaviruses may cross-react with SARS-CoV-2. Detailed mechanisms to protect against the pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 remain unresolved. We previously reported that IgG Fc-binding protein (Fcγbp), a unique, large molecular weight, and mucin-like secretory Fc receptor protein, secreted from g...
Source: Innate Immunity - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic. The virus primarily affects the lungs where it induces respiratory distress syndrome ranging from mild to acute, however, there is a growing body of evidence supporting its negative effects on other system organs that also carry the ACE2 receptor, such as the placenta. The majority of newborns delivered from SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers test negative following delivery, suggesting that there are protective mechanisms within the placenta. There appears to be a higher incidence of pregna...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractAt the end of December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic began in Wuhan of China. COVID-19 affects different people with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic with recovery without hospitalization up to a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The innate and adaptive immunity appears responsible for the defense against the virus and recovery from the disease. The innate immune system, as the first line of defense, is essential for the detection of virus and subsequent activation of acquired immunity. The innate immune response is carried out by sentinel cells such as monocytes/macrophag...
Source: Inflammation - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
enegas Alain Putot Patrick Manckoundia Healthcare workers (HCWs) are exposed to a higher risk of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) contamination. This prospective multicenter study describes the characteristics of HCWs tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) while working in a geriatric environment. We also compared HCWs with a positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) assay (RTPCR+ group) and those with a negative test result (RTPCR− group). Between 15/5/2020 and 15/9/2020, 258 HCWs, employed in the acute geriatric unit (AGU), geriatric rehabilitation unit ...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
‘Coronavirus Disease 2019’ (COVID-19), caused by the highly transmissible and pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has so far infected about 220 million people worldwide, leading to more than 4.6 million deaths within a period of 21 months. In Thailand, approxi mately 1.3 million cases and over 13,000 deaths have been confirmed at the time of writing (2021). The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has taken a significant toll on global public health and economy, calling for a deeper understanding of immune correlates of protection against SARS-CoV-2 that may be vita l for implementation...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. Globally as of September 1st, 2021, there have been nearly 218 million cases reported to WHO with over 4.5 million deaths while in Uganda 99,408 cases with over 3000 deaths have been recorded (WHO 2021). Since this evaluation, the number of new cases and deaths continued to rise.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, a preliminary comparison of the analytical sensitivity of nine RT-qPCR kits from different manufacturers was first conducted using a certified reference material derived from the genomic RNA of SARS-CoV-2 as the template. Subsequently, three of the nine kits, comprising two highly sensitive kits (DAAN, Huirui) and one less sensitive kit (Geneodx), were selected for further sensitivity and specificity validation. The results revealed variations in the performance between kits of the two groups. For the two highly sensitive kits, the limits of detection at 95% probability (LOD95%) were 5.6 copies of the N gene...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - Category: Virology Authors: Source Type: research
Brief Bioinform. 2021 Sep 13:bbab382. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbab382. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has triggered an unprecedented international effort to sequence complete viral genomes. We leveraged this wealth of information to characterize the substitution spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 and to compare it with those of other human and animal coronaviruses. We show that, once nucleotide composition is taken into account, human and most animal coronaviruses display a mutation spectrum dominated by C to U and G to U substitutions, a feature that is not shared by o...
Source: Briefings in Bioinformatics - Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractThe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is threatening people's lives and impacting their health. It is still unclear whether people engaged in physical activity are at an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe forms of COVID-19. In order to provide data to help answer this question, we, therefore, investigated the effects of endurance training on the levels of host proteins involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice. Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were subjected to treadmill running (17 –25 m/min, 60–90 m...
Source: Physiological Reports - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
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