The Pharmacology and Clinical Efficacy of Antiseizure Medications: From Bromide Salts to Cenobamate and Beyond

AbstractEpilepsy is one of the most common and disabling chronic neurological disorders. Antiseizure medications (ASMs), previously referred to as anticonvulsant or antiepileptic drugs, are the mainstay of symptomatic epilepsy treatment. Epilepsy is a multifaceted complex disease and so is its treatment. Currently, about 30 ASMs are available for epilepsy therapy. Furthermore, several ASMs are approved therapies in nonepileptic conditions, including neuropathic pain, migraine, bipolar disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. Because of this wide spectrum of therapeutic activity, ASMs are among the most often prescribed centrally active agents. Most ASMs act by modulation of voltage-gated ion channels; by enhancement of gamma aminobutyric acid-mediated inhibition; through interactions with elements of the synaptic release machinery; by blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors; or by combinations of these mechanisms. Because of differences in their mechanisms of action, most ASMs do not suppress all types of seizures, so appropriate treatment choices are important. The goal of epilepsy therapy is the complete elimination of seizures; however, this is not achievable in about one-third of patients. Both in vivo and in vitro models of seizures and epilepsy are used to discover ASMs that are more effective in patients with continued drug-resistant seizures. Furthermore, therapies that are specific to epilepsy etiology are being developed. Currently, ~  30 new compounds wi...
Source: CNS Drugs - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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Source: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundTransoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA) has been shown to be safe and has similar outcomes as open thyroidectomy for selected patients. It is not clear if transoral robotic thyroidectomy (TORT) may extend transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy to more complex thyroid operations. The study aimed to compare the safety and outcomes of TORT with those of TOETVA.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed all patients who had TORT and TOETVA performed by a single surgeon from June 2017 to May 2019. Intrathoracic goiter and combined operations were excluded. Surgical outcomes were compared after prop...
Source: Surgical Endoscopy - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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