Vaccine target for devastating livestock disease could change lives of millions

(Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute) The first ever vaccine target for trypanosomes, a family of parasites that cause devastating disease in animals and humans, has been discovered by scientists at the Wellcome Sanger Institute. By targeting a protein on the cell surface of the parasite Trypanosoma vivax, researchers were able to confer long-lasting protection against animal African trypanosomiasis (AAT) infection in mice.
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: news

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ntino de Sousa Trypanosomiases are diseases caused by parasitic protozoan trypanosomes of the genus Trypanosoma. In humans, this includes Chagas disease and African trypanosomiasis. There are few therapeutic options, and there is low efficacy to clinical treatment. Therefore, the search for new drugs for the trypanosomiasis is urgent. This review describes studies of the trypanocidal properties of essential oils, an important group of natural products widely found in several tropical countries. Seventy-seven plants were selected from literature for the trypanocidal activity of their essential oils. The main chemical co...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Human African Trypanosomiasis &Heart. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2020 Sep 23;: Authors: Ortiz HIA, Farina JM, Saldarriaga C, Mendoza I, Sosa Liprandi A, Wyss F, Burgos LM, Alexander B, Baranchuk A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Human African Trypanosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease resulting from the infection with the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Neurological compromise often dominates, and the impact of cardiovascular involvement has not been fully investigated. Recently, publications indicate that cardiovascular compromise is more frequent than previously thought. Early detection of cardiac comp...
Source: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy - Category: Cardiology Tags: Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther Source Type: research
by H élène Clémentine Margareta Baudouin, Laura Pfeiffer, Torsten OchsenreiterTrypanosoma brucei is a single celled eukaryotic parasite and the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis and nagana in cattle. Aside from its medical relevance,T.brucei has also been key to the discovery of several general biological principles including GPI-anchoring, RNA-editing and trans-splicing. The parasite contains a single mitochondrion with a singular genome. Recent studies have identified several molecular components of the mitochondrial genome segregation machinery (tripartite attachment complex, TAC), wh...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Leishmania and Trypanosoma parasites are responsible for the challenging neglected tropical diseases leishmaniases, Chagas disease and Human African Trypanosomiasis, which account for up to 40,000 deaths annually mainly in developing countries. Current chemotherapy relies on drugs with major limits of efficacy and safety, prompting the urgent need of exploring innovative approaches to improve the drug discovery pipeline. The unique trypanothione-based redox pathway, which is absent in the human host, is vital for all trypanosomatids and offers valuable opportunities to guide the rational development of sp...
Source: ChemMedChem - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: ChemMedChem Source Type: research
Since 2012, the World Health Organisation and the countries affected by the Gambian form of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) have been committed to eliminating the disease, primarily through active case-fin...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
In this study, we exploited the proximity-based biotinylation approach to identify binding partners of TbUnc119. We showed that TbUnc119 binds to a flagellar arginine kinase TbAK3 in a myristoylation-dependent manner and is responsible for its targeting to and enrichment in the flagellum. Interestingly, only TbArl3A, but not TbArl3C interacted with TbUnc119 in a GTP-dependent manner, suggesting functional specialization of Arl3-GTPases in T. brucei. These results establish the function of TbUnc119 as a myristoylated cargo carrier and support the presence of a conserved LIFT pathway in T. brucei.
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Cell Biology Source Type: research
ggi Riccardo Petrelli The rationale inspiring the discovery of lead compounds for the treatment of human parasitic protozoan diseases from natural sources is the well-established use of medicinal plants in various systems of traditional medicine. On this basis, we decided to select an overlooked medicinal plant growing in central Italy, Marrubium incanum Desr. (Lamiaceae), which has been used as a traditional remedy against protozoan diseases, and to investigate its potential against Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). For this purpose, we assayed three extracts of different polarities obtained from the aerial parts...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Jahnke W Abstract Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) is the causative agent of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT). Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates, a current treatment for bone diseases, have been shown to block the growth of the T. brucei parasites by inhibiting farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS); however, due to their poor pharmacokinetic properties they are not well suited for anti-parasitic therapy. Recently, an allosteric binding pocket was discovered on human FPPS, but its existence on trypanosomal FPPS was unclear. Here, we applied NMR and X-ray fragment screening on T. brucei FPPS and report on four ...
Source: Chembiochem - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Chembiochem Source Type: research
Introduced about a century ago, suramin remains a frontline drug for the management of early-stage East African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). Cellular entry into the causative agent, the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, occurs through receptor-mediated endocytosis involving the parasite's invariant surface glycoprotein 75 (ISG75), followed by transport into the cytosol via a lysosomal transporter. The molecular basis of the trypanocidal activity of suramin remains unclear, but some evidence suggests broad, but specific, impacts on trypanosome metabolism (i.e. polypharmacology). Here we observed that suramin is...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Metabolism Source Type: research
(Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz) Professor Ute Hellmich of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) has launched a new research project investigating essential membrane proteins of parasites, some of which can cause a neglected tropical disease (NTD) such as African sleeping sickness and Chagas disease.
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
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