Plain packaging 'may help smokers to cut down'

Conclusion This small study showed that priming adult smokers with a picture of a branded cigarette packet causes more of them to seek cigarettes compared with unbranded cigarettes – around 10% more. But this study has problems, meaning we can't really rely on its findings. The biggest of these was fully acknowledged by the study authors themselves. Professor Marcus Munafò, a co-author of the study, explained: "The experimental procedure only modelled the ability of pack stimuli to promote a cigarette-seeking choice. In the natural environment, smoking may be governed by a whole range of factors, including tobacco withdrawal, the presence of other people smoking, time of day, and so on. It is not clear to what extent plain packaging will reduce smoking when these other factors are at play.” The biggest real-world experiment is already happening in Australia, where plain packaging was introduced by law in 2012. The wider evidence showing whether plain packaging reduces smoking-related death and disease in adults or children was not discussed in this study, so we cannot comment. Taken on its own, this specific study adds weak evidence to the debate. There may be stronger evidence elsewhere. On this point, the Addiction journal's editor-in-chief, Professor Robert West, said in the BBC article: "All the pieces are building the same picture, which is that it is going to have a reduction; none of the studies are pointing in the other direction....
Source: NHS News Feed - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Heart/lungs Cancer Medical practice Mental health Source Type: news

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When it comes to staying healthy, most people have the same motivation: living as long and fulfilling a life as possible. And while science has yet to find a true fountain of youth, researchers have identified certain behaviors that can increase longevity. One study, published in the journal Circulation last year, even argued that adhering to just five healthy habits could extend your lifespan by roughly a decade. Here’s what they are, and what research to date says about living your longest life. Eating a healthy diet Diet is strongly linked to longevity. Research has long suggested that following a Mediterranean di...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Longevity Source Type: news
te Most patients with cancer pain can be managed with relatively simple methods using oral analgesics at relatively low doses, even for prolonged periods of time. However, in some clinical conditions pain may be more difficult to manage. Various factors can interfere with a desirable and favorable analgesic response. Data from several studies assessing factors of negative pain prognosis have indicated that neuropathic pain, incident pain, psychological distress, opioid addiction, and baseline pain intensity were associated with more difficult pain control. In this narrative review, the main factors that make the therap...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Perspective Source Type: research
Parents of a Florida teenager who became addicted to Juul havesued Juul, Altria, and Philip Morris USA based on a number of claims, including fraud, negligence, and violation of the RICO statute (the compliant ishere). Dr. Stan Glantz and Lauren Lempert provide a nicesummary of the reasoning behind the lawsuit and the specific claims being made. The case was filed on Monday in the federal district court for the middle district of Florida.The Rest of the StoryAlthough the main complaint is that the company fraudulently provided misinformation about the product, its health risks, and its addictiveness, the complaint itself p...
Source: The Rest of the Story: Tobacco News Analysis and Commentary - Category: Addiction Source Type: blogs
 Everyone has bad habits. Even your sainted Granny who seems perfect to you has some bad habit that only your grandfather knows about. Bad habits, like everything, exist on a spectrum, from biting your nails to snorting cocaine – and everything in between. In this episode, our hosts discuss bad habits that many people with mental illness seem to have – from smoking, to alcoholism, to drug use and, you guessed it, everything in between.   SUBSCRIBE &REVIEW “90% of people with schizophrenia smoke.” – Michelle Hammer   Highlights From ‘Bad Habits Mental Illness&rsq...
Source: World of Psychology - Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Tags: A Bipolar, A Schizophrenic, and a Podcast Addiction Habits Schizophrenia Stress Source Type: blogs
Conclusion The expression of the components of the PTN-MK-RPTPβ/ζ axis in immune cells and in inflammatory diseases suggests important roles for this axis in inflammation. Pleiotrophin has been recently identified as a limiting factor of metainflammation, a chronic pathological state that contributes to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Pleiotrophin also seems to potentiate acute neuroinflammation independently of the inflammatory stimulus while MK seems to play different -even opposite- roles in acute neuroinflammation depending on the stimulus. Which are the functions of MK and PTN in chronic neuroinfla...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusion This paper summarizes the current findings regarding the anti-colitis activity of plant-derived alkaloids and shows how these alkaloids exhibit significant and beneficial effects in alleviating colonic inflammation. These natural alkaloids are not only promising agents for IBD treatment but are also components for developing new wonder drugs. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms or toxicological evaluation of most plant-derived alkaloids still require much scientific research, and their actual efficacies for IBD patients have not been verified well in field research. Thus, further clinical trials to elu...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe two generalized designs (the two-facet unbalanced design and the one-facet multivariate design) indicated that the effects of the participate and the effects associated with the participate accounted for the majority of the total variation of the MPATS for Chinese college students, and the test items were not the main source of measurement errors. According to the generalizability coefficient and dependability index, the MPATS can be used either as a Norm Referenced Test or as a Criterion Referenced Test, but it depends on the research intention of the study that uses this scale. For the specific dimensions ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Yi He†, Wenyong Long† and Qing Liu* Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China Super-enhancers (SEs) refer to large clusters of enhancers that drive gene expressions. Recent data has provided novel insights in elucidating the roles of SEs in many diseases, including cancer. Many mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis and progression, ranging from internal gene mutation and rearrangement to external damage and inducement, have been demonstrated to be highly associated with SEs. Moreover, translocation, formation, deletion, or duplication of SEs themselves co...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusion: This method can assist radiologists in their routine alcoholism screening of brain magnetic resonance images. Introduction Alcoholism (1) was previously composed of two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. According to current terminology, alcoholism differs from “harmful drinking” (2), which is an occasional pattern of drinking that contributes to increasing levels of alcohol-related ill-health. Today, it is defined depending on more than one of the following conditions: alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in social problems, drinking large amounts over a long time period, di...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated the role of the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK channels) in NAc and mPFC after morphine withdrawal. Action potential (AP) firing of neurons in the NAc shell was enhanced via the downregulations of the SK channels after morphine withdrawal. Furthermore, the expression of SK2 and SK3 subunits in the NAc was significantly reduced after 3 weeks of morphine withdrawal, but was not altered in the dorsal striatum. In mPFC, the SK channel subunits were differentially expressed. To be specific, the expression of SK3 was upregulated, while the expression of SK2 was unchanged...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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