Tick-human interactions: from allergic klendusity to the α-Gal syndrome

Biochem J. 2021 May 14;478(9):1783-1794. doi: 10.1042/BCJ20200915.ABSTRACTTicks and the pathogens they transmit, including bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and helminths, constitute a growing burden for human and animal health worldwide. The ability of some animal species to acquire resistance to blood-feeding by ticks after a single or repeated infestation is known as acquired tick resistance (ATR). This resistance has been associated to tick-specific IgE response, the generation of skin-resident memory CD4+ T cells, basophil recruitment, histamine release, and epidermal hyperplasia. ATR has also been associated with protection to tick-borne tularemia through allergic klendusity, a disease-escaping ability produced by the development of hypersensitivity to an allergen. In addition to pathogen transmission, tick infestation in humans is associated with the α-Gal syndrome (AGS), a type of allergy characterized by an IgE response against the carbohydrate Galα1-3Gal (α-Gal). This glycan is present in tick salivary proteins and on the surface of tick-borne pathogens such as Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agents of Lyme disease and granulocytic anaplasmosis. Most α-Gal-sensitized individuals develop IgE specific against this glycan, but only a small fraction develop the AGS. This review summarizes our current understanding of ATR and its impact on the continuum α-Gal sensitization, allergy, and the AGS. We propose that t...
Source: The Biochemical Journal - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Source Type: research

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Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Analyst, 2021, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/D1AN01483H, PaperQianying Qiu, Xiao Ni, Tianchen Liu, Zening Li, Xinyi An, Xiaojun Chen Food allergy is an immune system reaction to a particular food, in which milk is the most common one. β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) is the main ingredient of milk protein and the... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
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CONCLUSIONS: Patients and healthcare providers should be aware of the potential risks associated with testing, with attention to ensuring proper technique, and be prepared to recognize and manage adverse events.PMID:34547903 | DOI:10.1177/19458924211046725
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This study assessed CAC and its association with dietary intake in asymptomatic men. We evaluated 150 asymptomatic men with mean age of 58.2±5.3 years. The dietary intake was assessed by the Food Consumption Register method. CAC was measured through multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and assessed in accordance with the Agatston score. Modified Poisson regression model was used to estimate the effects of intake of different nutrients that are prevalent in moderate/severe CAC, adjusted for calorie intake and CAC risk factors by means of prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals [95%CI]. An association was f...
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Mast cells (MCs) are involved in several biological processes, such as defense against pathogens, immunomodulation, tissue repair after injury, and angiogenesis. MCs have been shown to change from protective immune cells to potent pro-inflammatory cells, influencing the progression of many pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases and cancers. The role of MCs in the pathogenesis of rhinopathies has often been underestimated, since previous studies have focused their attention on eosinophils and neutrophils, while MCs were considered involved exclusively in allergic rhinitis. However, recent nasal cytology find...
Source: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Older adults with a low level of education can use the MASK-air ® app after a short training session.Int Arch Allergy Immunol
Source: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
min Xie To elucidate the chemical linkages between lignin and carbohydrates in ginkgo cell walls, 13C-2H-enriched cell wall-dehydrogenation polymers (CW-DHP) were selectively prepared with cambial tissue from Ginkgo biloba L. by feeding D-glucose-[6-2H2], coniferin-[α-13C], and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) inhibitor. The abundant detection of 13C and 2H confirmed that D-glucose-[6-2H2] and coniferin-[α-13C] were involved in the normal metabolism of ginkgo cambial cells that had been effectively labelled with dual isotopes. In the ginkgo CW-DHP, ketal and ether linkages were formed between the C-α...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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