Tick-human interactions: from allergic klendusity to the α-Gal syndrome
Biochem J. 2021 May 14;478(9):1783-1794. doi: 10.1042/BCJ20200915.ABSTRACTTicks and the pathogens they transmit, including bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and helminths, constitute a growing burden for human and animal health worldwide. The ability of some animal species to acquire resistance to blood-feeding by ticks after a single or repeated infestation is known as acquired tick resistance (ATR). This resistance has been associated to tick-specific IgE response, the generation of skin-resident memory CD4+ T cells, basophil recruitment, histamine release, and epidermal hyperplasia. ATR has also been associated with protection to tick-borne tularemia through allergic klendusity, a disease-escaping ability produced by the development of hypersensitivity to an allergen. In addition to pathogen transmission, tick infestation in humans is associated with the α-Gal syndrome (AGS), a type of allergy characterized by an IgE response against the carbohydrate Galα1-3Gal (α-Gal). This glycan is present in tick salivary proteins and on the surface of tick-borne pathogens such as Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agents of Lyme disease and granulocytic anaplasmosis. Most α-Gal-sensitized individuals develop IgE specific against this glycan, but only a small fraction develop the AGS. This review summarizes our current understanding of ATR and its impact on the continuum α-Gal sensitization, allergy, and the AGS. We propose that t...
FRIDAY, Jan. 21, 2022 -- For young children with peanut allergy, initiation of peanut oral immunotherapy is associated with an increase in desensitization and remission, according to a study published in the Jan. 22 issue of The Lancet. Stacie M....
FRIDAY, Jan. 21, 2022 -- Some kids might be able to get over their peanut allergy if they start immunotherapy while they're still toddlers, a major new clinical trial reports. In the trial, a group of 1- to 3-year-olds with severe peanut allergies...
Condition: Lupus Nephritis Interventions: Drug: VIB4920; Drug: Placebo for VIB4920 Sponsor: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Not yet recruiting
Condition: Overweight and Obesity Interventions: Other: Conditioned Stimulus + (CS+): Flavored beverage solution with 75 calories of sucrose; Other: Conditioned Stimulus - (CS-): Flavored beverage solution with sweetness-matched sucralose; Other: High-Fat Test Meal Inside a Metabolic Chamber; Other: High-Carbohydrate Test Meal Inside a Metabolic Chamber Sponsor: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Not yet recruiting
Dr. Stacie Jones co-authored the study, which includes patients from Arkansas Children's Hospital.
After 2.5 years of peanut oral immunotherapy, 71% of toddlers could safely consume 17 peanuts, and more than 1 in 5 maintained this protection even after stopping treatment for 6 months.Medscape Medical News
Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2022 Jan 21:19458924211073850. doi: 10.1177/19458924211073850. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: The value of aeroallergen skin testing is not known in IgE deficient individuals (IgE