Histopathological changes in Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852) ovaries after a chronic exposure to a mixture of the HIV drug nevirapine and the antibiotics sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim

Chemosphere. 2021 Jul;274:129900. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129900. Epub 2021 Feb 9.ABSTRACTThe burden of the human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) infection has transformed the African continent into a major consumer of antiretrovirals (ARVs) drugs. In addition to HIV burden, the African continent has also a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and has been experiencing recurring outbreaks of several other viral, bacterial, and parasitic epidemic diseases. The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2 or Covid-19) pandemic outbreak is adding to the continent's infectious diseases burden as experts are predicting that it will be here for a long time. One of the consequences of these infectious diseases is that antiviral and antibiotic compounds have become some of the most consumed pharmaceuticals on the continent. Many of these drugs have been frequently detected in surface waters across Africa. There is limited information available on the adverse effects of the mixtures of different types of pharmaceuticals in African aquatic environments on fish reproduction. The present study investigated the effects of the ARV drug nevirapine (NVP - 1.48 and 3.74 μg/L) and its mixture with the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (3.68 μg/L) and trimethoprim (0.87 μg/L) on O. mossambicus gonads using histopathological endpoints as biomarkers. The fish (n = 52) were exposed for 30 days in a static renewal system. Femal...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research

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