Histopathological changes in Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852) ovaries after a chronic exposure to a mixture of the HIV drug nevirapine and the antibiotics sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim
Chemosphere. 2021 Jul;274:129900. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129900. Epub 2021 Feb 9.ABSTRACTThe burden of the human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) infection has transformed the African continent into a major consumer of antiretrovirals (ARVs) drugs. In addition to HIV burden, the African continent has also a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and has been experiencing recurring outbreaks of several other viral, bacterial, and parasitic epidemic diseases. The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2 or Covid-19) pandemic outbreak is adding to the continent's infectious diseases burden as experts are predicting that it will be here for a long time. One of the consequences of these infectious diseases is that antiviral and antibiotic compounds have become some of the most consumed pharmaceuticals on the continent. Many of these drugs have been frequently detected in surface waters across Africa. There is limited information available on the adverse effects of the mixtures of different types of pharmaceuticals in African aquatic environments on fish reproduction. The present study investigated the effects of the ARV drug nevirapine (NVP - 1.48 and 3.74 μg/L) and its mixture with the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (3.68 μg/L) and trimethoprim (0.87 μg/L) on O. mossambicus gonads using histopathological endpoints as biomarkers. The fish (n = 52) were exposed for 30 days in a static renewal system. Femal...
Abe Oudshoorn, Tanya Benjamin, Tracy A. Smith-Carrier, Sarah Benbow, Carrie Anne Marshall, Riley Kennedy, Jodi Hall, C. Susana Caxaj, Helene Berman, Deanna Befus Housing, Care and Support, Vol. ahead-of-print, No. ahead-of-print, pp.- People experiencing homelessness are uniquely vulnerable to the impacts of a pandemic, such as COVID-19. Therefore, governments across Canada have been implementing a patchwork of responses to address the needs of those who are homeless at this time. The purpose of this study is to both compile and assess the varying responses by exploring the breadth of actions presented i...
ConclusionIn the follow-up of children and adolescents with CCM during the first UK lockdown using telemedicine we found that over half had stable health conditions. Patients needing additional care could not be predicted by the severity of their disease or their bowel function alone.
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