Examining prevalence and diversity of tick-borne pathogens in questing Ixodes pacificus ticks in California

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2021 Apr 23:AEM.00319-21. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00319-21. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTick-borne diseases in California include Lyme disease (caused by Borrelia burgdorferi), infections with Borrelia miyamotoi, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis (caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum). We surveyed multiple sites and habitats (woodland, grassland, coastal chaparral) in California to describe spatial patterns of tick-borne pathogen prevalence in western black-legged ticks (Ixodes pacificus). We found that several species of Borrelia - B. burgdorferi , B. americana and B. bissettiae - were observed in habitats such as coastal chaparral that does not harbor obvious reservoir host candidates. Describing tick-borne pathogen prevalence is strongly influenced by the scale of surveillance: aggregating data from individual sites to match jurisdictional boundaries (e.g., county or state) can lower the reported infection prevalence. Considering multiple pathogen species in the same habitat allows a more cohesive interpretation of local pathogen occurrence.ImportanceUnderstanding the local host ecology and prevalence of zoonotic diseases is vital for public health. Using tick-borne diseases in California, we show that there is often a bias to our understanding and that studies tend to focus on particular habitats e.g., Lyme disease in oak woodlands. Other habitats may harbor a surprising diversity of tick-borne pathogens but have been neglected, e.g., coastal chaparral...
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Rosa M.M. Gynthersen, Malte M. Tetens, Mathilde Ørbæk, Rasmus Haahr, Viktoria Fana, Klaus Hansen, Helene Mens, Åse Bengård Andersen, Anne-Mette Lebech
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The higher frequency of AII sub-assemblage suggests that anthroponotic transmission is more common in Salvador, but that zoonotic transmission pathways are also present and a change in susceptibility to different molecular patterns of Giardia may occur during child growth. PMID: 33030834 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Biomedica : Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Biomedica Source Type: research
Coronaviruses have caused several zoonotic infections in the past two decades, leading to significant morbidity and mortality globally. Balanced regulation of cell death and inflammatory immune responses is essential to promote protection against coronavirus infection; however, the underlying mechanisms that control these processes remain to be resolved. Here we demonstrate that infection with the murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) activated the NLRP3 inflammasome and inflammatory cell death in the form of PANoptosis. Deleting NLRP3 inflammasome components or the downstream cell death executioner gasdermin D (G...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Microbiology Source Type: research
Chagas disease is a zoonotic infection caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which affects an estimated 8 –11 million people globally. Chagas disease is almost always associated with poverty in rural areas and...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
AbstractRabies is an important zoonotic disease in Iran. Autophagy is a process that maintains homeostasis and can be used as an innate defense mechanism against viruses. Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death induced by physiological and pathological conditions. The crosstalk of autophagy and apoptosis plays a key role in rabies virus infection. In the current study, NMRI mice intra-cranially received 3-Methyl Adenine (3-MA), rapamycin, street rabies virus (SRABV) and drugs plus SRABV. SRABV andMap1lc3,Beclin-1,Atg5 gene expression were assayed by real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry was carried out via LC3 prot...
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
éter Pankovics Hepatitis E virus (HEV) (family Hepeviridae) is one of the most common human pathogens, causing acute hepatitis and an increasingly recognized etiological agent in chronic hepatitis and extrahepatic manifestations. Recent studies reported that not only are the classical members of the species Orthohepevirus A (HEV-A) pathogenic to humans but a genetically highly divergent rat origin hepevirus (HEV-C1) in species Orthohepevirus C (HEV-C) is also able to cause zoonotic infection and symptomatic disease (hepatitis) in humans. This review summarizes the current knowledge of hepeviruses in rodents with...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Coronavirus (CoV) outbreaks have recently emerged as a global public health threat due to their exceptional zoonotic potential — a feature arising from their ability to infect a diverse range of potential hosts combined with their high capacity for mutation and recombination. After Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) CoV-1 in 2003 and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) CoV in 2012, with the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic we are now in the midst of the third deadly international CoV outbreak in less than 20 years. Coronavirus outbreaks present a critical threat to global public health and an urgent necessity fo...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, combined with metagenomic sequencing approach as well as ultraperformance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry metabolic profiling, was applied to demonstrate changes in the gut microbiome community structure during schistosomiasis progression, the functional interactions between the gut bacteria and S. japonicum infection in BALB/c mice, and the dynamic metabolite changes of the host. The results showed that both gut microbiome and the metabolites were significantly altered at different time points after the infection. Decrease in richness and diversity as well as differed...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Most vector-borne pathogens cause zoonotic diseases. These zoonoses often have wild animal reservoirs that play a significant role in disease epidemiology. However, pet animals have also been implicated in tra...
Source: BMC Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
The objectives of this study were to...
Source: BMC Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
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