Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 700: Long-COVID and Post-COVID Health Complications: An Up-to-Date Review on Clinical Conditions and Their Possible Molecular Mechanisms
Viruses, Vol. 13, Pages 700: Long-COVID and Post-COVID Health Complications: An Up-to-Date Review on Clinical Conditions and Their Possible Molecular Mechanisms Viruses doi: 10.3390/v13040700 Authors: Bruno Silva Silva Andrade Sérgio Siqueira Wagner Rodrigues de Assis de Assis Soares Fernanda de Souza de Souza Rangel Naiane Oliveira Santos Andria dos Santos dos Santos Freitas Priscila Ribeiro da Ribeiro da Silveira Sandeep Tiwari Khalid J Alzahrani Aristóteles Góes-Neto Vasco Azevedo Preetam Ghosh Debmalya Barh The COVID-19 pandemic has infected millions worldwide, leaving a global burden for long-term care of COVID-19 survivors. It is thus imperative to study post-COVID (i.e., short-term) and long-COVID (i.e., long-term) effects, specifically as local and systemic pathophysiological outcomes of other coronavirus-related diseases (such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)) were well-cataloged. We conducted a comprehensive review of adverse post-COVID health outcomes and potential long-COVID effects. We observed that such adverse outcomes were not localized. Rather, they affected different human systems, including: (i) immune system (e.g., Guillain–Barré syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndromes such as Kawasaki disease), (ii) hematological system (vascular hemostasis, blood coagulation), (iii) pulmonary system (respiratory fai...
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