Cardiorespiratory and Immunologic Effects of Electronic Cigarettes

AbstractPurpose of ReviewAlthough e-cigarettes have become popular, especially among youth, the health effects associated with e-cigarette use remain unclear. This review discusses current evidence relating to the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and immunological effects of e-cigarettes.Recent FindingsThe use of e-cigarettes by healthy adults has been shown to increase blood pressure, heart rate, and arterial stiffness, as well as resistance to air flow in lungs. Inhalation of e-cigarette aerosol has been shown to elicit immune responses and increase the production of immunomodulatory cytokines in young tobacco-na ïve individuals. In animal models, long-term exposure to e-cigarettes leads to marked changes in lung architecture, dysregulation of immune genes, and low-grade inflammation. Exposure to e-cigarette aerosols in mice has been shown to induce DNA damage, inhibit DNA repair, and promote carcinogenesis . Chronic exposure to e-cigarettes has also been reported to result in the accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages in the lung and dysregulation of lipid metabolism and transport in mice. Although, the genotoxic and inflammatory effects of e-cigarettes are milder than those of combustible cigarettes , some of the cardiorespiratory effects of the two insults are comparable. The toxicity of e-cigarettes has been variably linked to nicotine, as well as other e-cigarette constituents, operating conditions, and use patterns.SummaryThe use of e-cigarettes in humans is associate...
Source: Current Addiction Reports - Category: Addiction Source Type: research

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Mol Biol Rep. 2021 Oct 8. doi: 10.1007/s11033-021-06741-y. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMethamphetamine is a highly addictive central stimulant with extensive and strong neurotoxicity. The neurotoxicity of methamphetamine is closely related to the imbalance of dopamine levels and the destruction of the blood-brain barrier. An increase in dopamine may induce adverse effects such as behavioral sensitization and excessive locomotion. Damage to the blood-brain barrier can cause toxic or harmful substances to leak to the central nervous system, leading to neurotoxicity. The renin-angiotensin system is essential for the regulat...
Source: Molecular Biology Reports - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: The study confirms that emotion regulation is a mediator for SUDs especially with long duration of illness, presence of certain personality traits and disorders, and high impulsivity.
Source: Addictive Disorders and Their Treatment - Category: Addiction Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
In this study, we review investigations that evaluated the association between genetic polymorphisms of DNA repair genes and risk of HCC.PMID:34416543 | DOI:10.1016/j.dnarep.2021.103196
Source: DNA Repair - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research
In conclusion, treatment with nicotine caused oxidative stress and inflammation which can cause widespread cellular damage from the very onset of treatment, without subverting the tumor suppressor and DNA repair responses.PMID:34220004 | PMC:PMC8215012 | DOI:10.1007/s12291-020-00903-8
Source: Clinical Biochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusions: This study provides insights about IGD among a predominantly female Arab population, finding a correlation with mood disorder symptomatology and suggesting an increase in problematic gaming over time. The results are discussed with reference to the mood repair hypothesis and the possibility of IGD being a dual disorder. The association with depressive symptoms is also discussed in light of the neurobiology of addictive behaviors and sexual dimorphism.
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusions: These findings provide new evidence that could be useful in terms of guiding health-promoting clinical and educational interventions at an early age.
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Objectives: Emotion regulation deficits and impulsivity and personality profile as well play a role in the development and maintenance of substance use disorder (SUD). We aimed to examine the emotion regulation and both impulsivity and personality profile among patients with SUDs and its correlates. Patients and Methods: One hundred male patients with SUDs were selected from the inpatient and outpatient departments compared with 100 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and education. Structured Clinical Interview for the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (SCID-I); Temperement and Character ...
Source: Addictive Disorders and Their Treatment - Category: Addiction Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
By HANS DUVEFELT A “frozen shoulder” can be manipulated to move freely again under general anesthesia. The medications we use to put patients to sleep for such procedures work on the brain and don’t concentrate in the shoulder joints at all. An ingrown toenail can be removed or an arthritic knee can be replaced by injecting a local anesthetic – at the base of the toe or into the spine – interrupting the connection between the body and the brain. An arthritic knuckle can stop hurting and move more freely after a steroid injection that dramatically reduces inflammation, giving lasting r...
Source: The Health Care Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Medical Practice Patients Physicians Primary Care Hans Duvefelt Pain Management Source Type: blogs
Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1392: Alternative Non-Homologous End-Joining: Error-Prone DNA Repair as Cancer’s Achilles’ Heel Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers13061392 Authors: Daniele Caracciolo Caterina Riillo Maria Teresa Di Martino Pierosandro Tagliaferri Pierfrancesco Tassone Error-prone DNA repair pathways promote genomic instability which leads to the onset of cancer hallmarks by progressive genetic aberrations in tumor cells. The molecular mechanisms which foster this process remain mostly undefined, and breakthrough advancements are eagerly awaited. In this context, the alternative non-homologous ...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
In this study, young adult mice were submitted to endurance exercise training and the function, differentiation, and metabolic characteristics of satellite cells were investigated in vivo and in vitro. We found that injured muscles from endurance-exercised mice display improved regenerative capacity, demonstrated through higher densities of newly formed myofibres compared with controls (evidenced by an increase in embryonic myosin heavy chain expression), as well as lower inflammation (evidenced by quantifying CD68-marked macrophages), and reduced fibrosis. Enhanced myogenic function was accompanied by an increased ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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