Fight Aging! Newsletter, March 1st 2021

This study may have important implications for preventing cell senescence and aging-induced tendinopathy, as well as for the selection of novel therapeutic targets of chronic tendon diseases. Our results showed that the treatment of bleomycin, a DNA damaging agent, induced rat patellar TSC (PTSC) cellular senescence. The senescence was characterized by an increase in the senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, as well as senescence-associated changes in cell morphology. On the other hand, rapamycin could extend lifespan in multiple species, including yeast, fruit flies, and mice, by decelerating DNA damage accumulation and cellular senescence. As an inhibitor of mTOR, rapamycin is a prospect of pharmacological rejuvenation of aging stem cells. Our findings show that rapamycin partially decreases the senescence-associated β-gal activity and morphological alterations, which indicate that rapamycin reverses senescence in rat PTSCs at both molecular and cellular levels. Autophagy is a major mechanism for maintaining cellular homeostasis via autophagic cell death. Studies have shown that the activity of autophagy is constitutively high in mesenchymal, hematopoietic, dermal, and epidermal stem cells. Autophagy plays a key role in the control of self-renewal and the stemness of stem cells, and growing evidences have linked autophagy and the mTOR signaling pathway. Some proposed underlying antiaging mechanisms by rapamycin include downregulated transla...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs

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Sclerosing polycystic adenoma (SPA) is a rare salivary gland neoplasm originally thought to represent a non-neoplastic lesion. Recently we have encountered an index case of apocrine intraductal carcinoma of parotid gland of 62-year-old man with invasive salivary duct carcinoma component arising from SPA, a combination of tumor entities that has never been published so far. Here, we further explore the nature of SPA by evaluating 36 cases that were identified from the authors’ consultation files. The patients were 25 females and 11 males aged 11 to 79 years (mean, 47.8 y). All tumors originated from the parotid...
Source: The American Journal of Surgical Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
NUT carcinoma (aka NUT midline carcinoma) is a rare, still significantly underrecognized aggressive malignancy. Although historically considered a midline malignancy of children and young adults, NUT carcinoma can originate in almost any body site and in any age group. Beside the classic BRD4-NUTM1 fusion, less common fusion partners include BRD3, NSD3, ZNF532, and ZNF592. Other fusions, including CIC, MGA, MXD4, MXD1, and BCORL1 are associated with sarcomas or cancers of unknown histogenesis. Involvement of the Z4 zinc finger protein (ZNF) family members ZNF532 and ZNF592 is exceedingly rare with only 3 recently reported ...
Source: The American Journal of Surgical Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
In conclusion, HPV-negative intraepithelial cervical precancerous lesions exist, either as highly differentiated keratinized intraepithelial proliferations reminiscent of differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, or undifferentiated basaloid intraepithelial lesions with occasional p16ink4a block staining resembling high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Gains of chromosome 3q, angiogenic germline variants the inflammatory infiltrate may contribute to progression of HPV-negative cervical carcinogenesis.
Source: The American Journal of Surgical Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
So-called primary yolk sac tumors of the vulva are very rare and often have an aggressive disease course. Their molecular features have not been previously characterized. There is also a well-documented group of SMARCB1 (INI-1)-deficient vulvar neoplasms, which includes proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma and myoepithelial carcinoma. Until now, “vulvar yolk sac tumors” and SMARCB1-deficient neoplasms were considered unrelated diseases. After reviewing an index case of a vulvar yolk sac tumor with loss of SMARCB1 by immunohistochemistry, we retrospectively identified 2 additional cases diagnosed as vulvar yolk sac...
Source: The American Journal of Surgical Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Venous invasion (VI) is a powerful yet underreported prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC). Its detection can be improved with an elastin stain. We evaluated the impact of routine elastin staining on VI detection in resected CRC and its relationship with oncologic outcomes. Pathology reports from the year before (n=145) and the year following (n=128) the implementation of routine elastin staining at our institution were reviewed for established prognostic factors, including VI. A second review, using elastin stains, documented the presence/absence, location, number, and size of VI foci. The relationship between VI a...
Source: The American Journal of Surgical Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Prostatic duct adenocarcinoma, characterized by pseudostratified columnar epithelium, has historically been considered invasive carcinoma, although it may commonly have an intraductal component. Usual (acinar) intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) is a noninvasive high-risk lesion typically associated with high-grade, high-stage prostate cancer. Whereas there have been rare biopsy studies of pure acinar IDC-P or IDC-P associated with only low-grade carcinoma, there have been no analogous series of IDC-P with cribriform or papillary ductal morphology on biopsy unassociated with invasive high-grade carcinoma. We iden...
Source: The American Journal of Surgical Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
In conclusion, ALK(+) ALCL has a unique metabolism showing high coexpression of MCT1 and MCT4 in tumor cells. Because only ALK(+) ALCL overexpresses MCT4, immunostaining for MCT4 together with ALK is very useful for differential diagnosis from ALK(−) ALCL or peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Moreover, dual targeting against MCT1 and MCT4 would be an appropriate therapeutic approach for ALK(+) ALCL.
Source: The American Journal of Surgical Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
HIGH cholesterol is a pernicious condition that paves the way to heart disease when left untreated. Fortunately, several strategies to lower cholesterol are backed by science. One body of research suggests that the compounds found in one popular fruit may lower levels of harmful cholesterol by 40 percent.
Source: Daily Express - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Hong Kong police have arrested two former flight attendants for allegedly leaving their homes when they should have been in isolation for possible coronavirus infections, which were later confirmed
Source: ABC News: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Health Source Type: news
This study explores changes in body fat distribution in relation to ARV exposure. Methods: We conducted a prospective study of adults with perinatal HIV (n = 70) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and standard anthropometrics. Trunk to limb fat ratio and waist to hip ratio were compared cross-sectionally to 47 matched controls. Furthermore, changes in body composition and ARV exposure were evaluated longitudinally in a subset of 40 PLWH with a median follow-up of 7 years. Results: Cross-sectional comparisons of PLWH with controls revealed significantly higher waist to hip ratio, trunk to limb fat ratio, H...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research
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