Universal anti-influenza vaccines based on viral HA2 and M2e antigens

Acta Virol. 2020;64(4):417-426. doi: 10.4149/av_2020_408.ABSTRACTAquatic birds are the main reservoir of influenza A viruses (IAVs). These viruses can infect humans repeatedly and cause acute respiratory disease with potential of spread in the form of epidemics. In addition, avian influenza viruses that overcome the interspecies barrier and adapt to humans can cause a world-wide pandemic with severe consequences to human health. Therefore, scientists are focused on the development of a "universal" vaccine with a broad protective efficacy, i.e. against different subtypes of influenza A viruses and not only against the currently co-circulating human epidemic strains. Nowadays, several new vaccine design strategies have been described. Most of them utilize the conserved stem part of influenza surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) or the ectodomain of M2 (M2e) protein with proton-channel activity. A comparison of the efficacy of novel vaccines and their protective mechanisms against influenza infection is discussed in this review and should be considered for the construction of the most effective broadly protective vaccine with minimal side effects. This is the essential goal in influenza virus research today, especially when the infection with new human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 can interfere with the course of influenza virus infection. Keywords: influenza A virus; HA2 gp; M2 ectodomain; universal vaccine.PMID:33151738 | DOI:10.4149/av_2020_408
Source: Acta Virologica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research