Socioenvironmental Factors Influencing Distribution and Intensity of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in the Brazilian Amazon: Challenges for the 2030 Agenda

J Trop Med. 2021 Feb 4;2021:6610181. doi: 10.1155/2021/6610181. eCollection 2021.ABSTRACTSoil-transmitted helminthiasis (STHs) are poverty-related diseases with high prevalence rates in developing countries. The present study aims to describe the epidemiological scenario of STHs in an urban population in the Brazilian Amazon. A cross-sectional survey (n = 349 children aged 1-15 years) was carried out to obtain faecal samples and sociodemographic and sanitation data. Among the children, 143 (41%) were positive for at least one STH. Prevalence rates of infections by A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworms were 24.4%, 42.6%, and 9%, respectively. A logistic regression multivariate model showed that infection with A. lumbricoides is significantly more frequent in children aged 11-15 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.38; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15-4.94; p=0.018) and the presence of latrines inside houses is a protection factor against ascariasis (OR = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.17-0.85; p=0.019). Positivity for T. trichiura is higher in the 5-10 (OR = 3.31; 95% IC = 1.85-5.89; p=0.001) and 11-15 age groups (OR = 3.16; 95% IC = 1.66-6.00; p=0.001), in children living in poor families (OR = 1.78; 95% IC = 1.01-3.14; p=0.045) and practicing open evacuation (OR = 2.07; 95% IC = 1.07-3.99; p=0.029). Hookworm infection is more frequent in children aged 11-15 years (OR = 6.70; 95% IC = 1.91-23.43; p=0.002), males (OR = 6.35; 95% IC = 2.00-20.14; p=0.002), and those living in stilt houses (O...
Source: Journal of Tropical Medicine - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research

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In conclusion, the study describes the interactions between the dimensions of development represented by income, STHs and nutritional status revealing the importance of raising income levels to improve the living conditions of families in impoverished communities in Northeastern Brazil. PMID: 33027397 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research
Authors: Sugiyama H, Morishima Y, Kagawa C, Araki J, Iwaki T, Ikuno H, Miguchi Y, Komatsu N, Kawakami Y, Asakura H Abstract Ascaris lumbricoides or roundworm is one of the key soil-transmitted helminths affecting humans. A small number of infections continue to occur in Japan, suggesting plant foodstuff contamination as the source of infection. To understand the current status of ascariasis incidence and to identify potential sources of infection, we extensively surveyed the available literature and collected data from testing facilities that examined clinical samples or foodstuffs. We observed that from 2002 onwar...
Source: Shokuhin eiseigaku zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan - Category: Food Science Tags: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi Source Type: research
Abstract Ascariasis is a globally spread intestinal nematode infection of humans and a considerable concern in pig husbandry. Ascaris accomplishes a complex body migration from the intestine via the liver and lung before returning to the intestine. Tissue migration and the habitat shared with a complex microbial community pose the question of how the nematode interacts with microbes and host cells from various tissues. This review addresses the current knowledge of the trilateral relationship between Ascaris, its microbial environment, and host cells, and discusses novel approaches targeting these interactions to ...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research
ConclusionsAfter a decade of community-based LF-MDA, STH in school-age children in Fiji is now close to 10%, but localities of endemicity remain. Preventive chemotherapy should be maintained in areas with elevated STH prevalence alongside targeted delivery of integrated WASH interventions. LF-TAS has provided an opportunity to develop future public health surveillance platforms.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
This is the presentation of a finding during an autopsy carried out on a 4-year old girl at the Judicial Morgue of Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires, Argentina, who died as a result of complications of a massive ascariasis, a parasitic infestation caused by As...
Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Age: Infants and Children Source Type: news
CONCLUSION: The average cure rate with anthelminthic treatment is over 95%. Unfortunately, most treated patients in endemic areas become re-infected within months. Health education, personal hygiene, improved sanitary conditions, proper disposal of human excreta, and discontinuing the use of human fecal matter as a fertilizer are effective long-term preventive measures. Targeting deworming treatment and mass anthelminthic treatment should be considered in regions where A. lumbricoides is prevalent. PMID: 32628606 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Recent Patents on Inflammation and Allergy Drug Discovery - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov Source Type: research
Abstract Phytolacca dodecandra L'Herit (Endod) is the most extensively studied plant among 35 known species in the genus Phytolacca (Family: Phytolaccaceae). The plant has been used as a viable treatment for various ailments, such as malaria, rabies, ascariasis, and skin disorders, in many parts of Africa. In Ethiopia, the dried and powdered Endod berries have been used for a long period of time as a detergent to clean clothes. Since the discovery of the molluscicidal activities of its berries more than five decades ago, P. dodecandra has been a research focus worldwide and several phytochemicals mainly of triterp...
Source: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Mini Rev Med Chem Source Type: research
by Simeon I. Cadmus, Victor O. Akinseye, Babafemi O. Taiwo, Elena O. Pinelli, Dick van Soolingen, Shelley G. Rhodes Africa is the second most populous continent and has perennial health challenges. Of the estimated 181 million school aged children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), nearly half suffer from ascariasis, trichuriasis, or a combination of these infections. Coupled with these is the problem of tuberculosis (TB) caused byMycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, which is a leading cause of death in the region. Compared to the effect of the human immunodeficiency virus on the development of TB, the effect of chronic ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract While ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm infection dominate global efforts to control human soil-transmitted helminth infections, a picture is unfolding to suggest that toxocariasis is now a fourth and perhaps equally important parasitic disease. Toxocara eggs are widespread in the environment and practically ubiquitous in the soils of many subtropical and tropical regions of Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Human zoonotic infection is also highly prevalent in these areas, based on serologic studies to detect anti-Toxocara antibodies. The relevance of these findings to human and animal disease burden e...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
Hepatosplenic candidiasis and other fungal infections of the liver are uncommon in healthy individuals; however, high index of suspicion is essential in immunocompromised patients with prolonged fever. Parasitic infections are protozoan or helminthic; their distribution and epidemiology are variable among different world regions. Clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, fascioliasis, and ascariasis are helminthic infections that commonly involve the biliary systems. Signs and symptoms of cholangitis require prompt management to relieve biliary obstruction; addition of antihelminthic agents is essential. Parasitic infections are mos...
Source: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research
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