IJERPH, Vol. 18, Pages 1806: Changing the Recipe: Pathogen Directed Changes in Tick Saliva Components

IJERPH, Vol. 18, Pages 1806: Changing the Recipe: Pathogen Directed Changes in Tick Saliva Components International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph18041806 Authors: Pham Underwood Oliva Chávez Ticks are obligate hematophagous parasites and are important vectors of a wide variety of pathogens. These pathogens include spirochetes in the genus Borrelia that cause Lyme disease, rickettsial pathogens, and tick-borne encephalitis virus, among others. Due to their prolonged feeding period of up to two weeks, hard ticks must counteract vertebrate host defense reactions in order to survive and reproduce. To overcome host defense mechanisms, ticks have evolved a large number of pharmacologically active molecules that are secreted in their saliva, which inhibits or modulates host immune defenses and wound healing responses upon injection into the bite site. These bioactive molecules in tick saliva can create a privileged environment in the host’s skin that tick-borne pathogens take advantage of. In fact, evidence is accumulating that tick-transmitted pathogens manipulate tick saliva composition to enhance their own survival, transmission, and evasion of host defenses. We review what is known about specific and functionally characterized tick saliva molecules in the context of tick infection with the genus Borrelia, the intracellular pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. Additionally, we ...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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