Effects of Antibiotic Use on Outcomes in Cancer Patients Treated Using Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Antibiotic (ATB) use seems to negatively affect the outcomes of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). The aim of this review is to clarify whether ATB use influences the efficacy of ICI treatment in cancer patients. Databases of MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched for reports published in English between January 2007 and December 2019. We included studies that compared the outcomes of ATB use and no-ATB use in cancer patients using ICIs. Two reviewers independently selected eligible studies and extracted the data. Meta-analysis was performed with pooling of unadjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), and with pooling of odds ratios (ORs) for objective response rate (ORR). Thirty-eight studies involving 8409 patients were finally included for qualitative or quantitative analyses. Cancer types included renal cell carcinoma, non–small cell lung cancer, urothelial carcinoma, melanoma, gastrointestinal cancer, and others. Meta-analyses revealed that ATB use was associated with poor OS [HR: 1.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44–2.26, P
Source: Journal of Immunotherapy - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Clinical Studies Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: Thyroiditis is common, often asymptomatic, and is more prevalent in patients treated with combinations of nivolumab and PD-L1 inhibitors, and in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Thyroiditis was associated with a trend for a survival benefit, particularly in patients with renal cell carcinoma.PMID:34379562 | DOI:10.1080/0284186X.2021.1958006
Source: Acta Oncologica - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Concomitant PPI use was not associated with the effectiveness of nivolumab or pembrolizumab. Certain predictors of survival outcomes related to PPI use in patients receiving immunotherapy, such as the time window and indication of PPI exposure and autoimmune disorders, should be explored in the future to better carve out the impact of PPI on the effectiveness of ICI use.PMID:34282636 | DOI:10.1177/10600280211033938
Source: The Annals of Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Source Type: research
The discovery of the immune checkpoint inhibitors such as programed cell death-1 protein/ Programmed death ligand-1 or 2 and (PD-1/PD-L1 or PD-L2) and Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) paved the way for developing novel cancer treatment. The check point inhibitors are found to be very efficient in treating many hot tumors (with immune environment) such as bladder cancer, melanoma, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), etc. Numerous clinical trials have been initiated to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of immune checkpoint inhibitors for patients with different cancer types...
Source: Current Cancer Therapy Reviews - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that CDKN2A GAs were associated with reduced benefit from ICI therapy in urothelial carcinoma as well as changes in the tumor-immune microenvironment.PMID:34074656 | DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-0575
Source: Clinical Lung Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes are more commonly seen with malignancies such as small cell lung cancer, thymoma, gynecological malignancies, and breast cancer as well as seminoma. With the introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) cancer immunotherapy we see an increase of autoimmune neurological complications in patients with malignancies not traditionally associated with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, such as melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. Immune checkpoint inhibitors enhance antitumor immune responses resulting often in immune-related adverse effects that can affect any organ, including the ce...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Orv Hetil. 2021 Apr 2;162(15):579-586. doi: 10.1556/650.2021.32052.ABSTRACTÖsszefoglaló. Az immunrendszer nem megfelelő működése meghatározó szerepet játszik a daganatok kialakulásában, progressziójában és az egyes terápiák hatékonyságában is. A bélrendszer baktériumai a szervezet immunitásán keresztül képesek befolyásolni a szervezet gyógyszeres terápiákra adott válaszreakcióját, kiváltképpen az immunellen...
Source: Orvosi Hetilap - Category: General Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: This case described here demonstrated that immunotherapy of PD-1 inhibitor is a promising treatment option for refractory MFS with PD-L1 positive or tumor mutational burden -high, which could contribute to effective tumor response.
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is a malignant central nervous system cancer with dismal prognosis despite conventional therapies. Scientists have great interest in using immunotherapy for treating GBM because it has shown remarkable potential in many solid tumors, including melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and renal cell carcinoma. The gene expression patterns, clinical data of GBM individuals from the Cancer Genome Atlas database (TCGA), and immune-related genes (IRGs) from ImmPort were used to identify differentially expressed IRGs through the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The association between each IRG and overall surviv...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2021 Feb 15;22(2):156-164. doi: 10.1631/jzus.B2000449.ABSTRACTWith the improvement of people's living standards, gastrointestinal adverse reactions caused by various adverse factors have attracted more and more people's attention. A recent study has indicated that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could also invade the gastrointestinal tract, leading to gastrointestinal adverse reactions (Song et al., 2020). In recent years, immunotherapy has provided certain effects for some patients with advanced malignant tumors. A microencapsulation of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) was reported to provide an effective...
Source: J Zhejiang Univ Sci ... - Category: Science Authors: Source Type: research
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