Stress Fractures of the Hip and Pelvis
Stress fractures refer to overuse injuries of bone resulting from repetitive mechanical stress. Stress fractures of the hip and pelvic region, while relatively uncommon, have become increasingly recognized in certain populations, particularly long-distance runners and military recruits. The diagnosis of such injuries can be challenging, often hampered by a nonspecific physical examination and limited sensitivity of plain radiography. Early recognition is important to direct appropriate management, lessen time lost from sport, and avoid potential complications. The present article reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of bone stress injuries of the hip and pelvis, specifically the sacrum, pubic ramus, and femoral neck.
Background: Controversy exists regarding the need for proximal fibular epiphysiodesis in conjunction with proximal tibial epiphysiodesis to prevent relative overgrowth of the fibula. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of relative fibular overgrowth in patients who had undergone proximal tibial epiphysiodesis with or without proximal fibular epiphysiodesis to manage leg-length discrepancy. Methods: We identified patients who had undergone proximal tibial epiphysiodesis, with or without concomitant fibular epiphysiodesis, followed to skeletal maturity, and with adequate scanograms to measure tibial...
Conclusions: In this dual-center retrospective series, the single-incision triple innominate osteotomy was extremely effective for improving acetabular coverage and stabilizing unstable hips in a variety of underlying diagnoses with an acceptably low rate of complications. Level of Evidence: Level IV—case series.
Conclusions: The authors rejected their null hypothesis. Children do have the capacity to remodel radiographically measurable sagittal plane malunion of SCHFs. Children younger than 5 years of age can remodel 100% displacement of the center of the capitellum, whereas those over 8 years of age have minimal remodeling capacity.
Conclusions: Distal radius fractures have a large capacity to remodel in the pediatric population. This remodeling occurs in a predictable and reliable manner, even in the coronal plane. On the basis of this study, coronal angulation was shown to remodel at a rate of at least 2 degrees per month for the first 6 months following the injury, which should likely continue at a similar rate for the first year after the injury. Repeat manipulation is not indicated in skeletally immature patients where the maximum coronal angulation is
Conclusions: Intra-articular distal radius fractures in skeletally immature patients have a considerably higher rate of physeal growth arrest than extra-articular physeal fractures. Following acute management aimed at restoring and preserving anatomic physeal and articular alignment, follow-up radiographs should be obtained to evaluate for physeal arrest in skeletally immature children. Patients and families should be counseled regarding the high rate of growth disturbance and the potential need for deformity correction in the future, particularly in younger children. Level of Evidence: IV—case series.
Background: Chronic Monteggia lesions in children may cause pain, deformity, decreased range of motion, and neurological symptoms. Numerous surgical techniques have been advocated to reconstruct long-standing Monteggia injures in efforts to maximize long-term upper limb function. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the clinical and radiographic results of a modified surgical technique for missed Monteggia fracture-dislocations. Methods: A retrospective evaluation of 52 patients who underwent surgical reconstruction of missed Monteggia fracture-dislocations at a tertiary pediatric hospital was performed. Th...
Conclusions: In this multicenter series of 125 APSCDs no injuries to the great vessels/mediastinal structures requiring intervention were identified. Although more than half of patients had evidence of extrinsic vascular compression at the time of injury, careful open reduction of acute injuries can be safely performed. Although vascular injuries following APSCD seem to be quite rare, vascular complications can be catastrophic. Treating providers should consider these data and their own institutional resources to maximize patient safety during the treatment of APSCD. Level of Evidence: Level III—therapeutic case control study.
Conclusions: Heavier children have worse radiographic outcomes and higher complication rates with the use of FIN for femoral shaft fractures. Additional research is needed to determine the effect of FIN material on clinical outcomes in heavier children, and the relationship between weight and other known risk factors for poor outcome in FIN, such as length stability. Level of Evidence: Level III—systematic review of level-III studies.
Conclusions: Patients undergoing operative management of triplane fractures achieved comparable functional outcomes scores without an increased incidence of complications when compared with patients undergoing nonoperative treatment. Further investigations analyzing outcomes at middle and long-term follow-up are necessary to determine the clinical utility of CT and various treatment modalities for the management of triplane fractures. Level of Evidence: Level IV—Systematic review.
Conclusions: Five years following “graduation” from growing surgery for early onset scoliosis, there is progression of curve magnitude in both the coronal and sagittal planes up to 2 years, with no further progression at 5 years. A total of 21% of patients undergo at least 1 revision surgery, and average time to revision surgery is over 2 years from last planned surgery. Risk of revision surgery was higher in patients who underwent a spinal fusion as their definitive treatment strategy. Level Evidence: Level III—retrospective comparative. Type of Evidence: Therapeutic.