These Viruses Are Forever: Consequences of Retroviral DNA Integration to Aids and Evolution

Our research interests revolve around obtaining a better understanding of the interaction of retroviruses with their host cells and organisms. We use simple retroviruses (avian and murine viruses) as well as HIV to elucidate the nature of the retrovirus-receptor interaction; control of viral gene expression; mechanism of retroviral genetic variation; and evolution of the host-virus relationship, as revealed by the fossil record provided by endogenous proviruses found in the normal DNA of all vertebrates and many other species.For more information go tohttps://oir.nih.gov/walsAir date: 3/16/2021 3:00:00 PM
Source: Videocast - All Events - Category: General Medicine Tags: Upcoming Events Source Type: video

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This study argues that Congress should repeal all federal aid-to-state programs for many reasons, including that aid comes with costly strings attached that destroy local democracy.Richard Epstein and Mario Loyolanoted about aid programs: “When Americans vote in state and local elections, they think they are voting on state and local policies. But often they are just deciding which local officials get to implement the dictates of distant and insulated federal bureaucrats, whom even Congress can’t control.”I came across a table (p. 82) in New Jersey ’s budget that lists the $15 billion the state rece...
Source: Cato-at-liberty - Category: American Health Authors: Source Type: blogs
Abstract Here, we explore the dynamics of the response of the scientific community to several epidemics, including Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), as assessed by the numbers of clinical trials, publications, and level of research funding over time. All six prior epidemics studied [bird flu, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), swine flu, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Ebola, and Zika] were characterized by an initial spike of research response that flattened shortly thereafter. Unfortunately, no antiviral medications have been discovered to date as treatments for any of these diseases. By contrast, the...
Source: Drug Discovery Today - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Drug Discov Today Source Type: research
Read the full case study here   INCREASING EPIDEMIC FREQUENCY There’s mounting evidence that the rates of infectious disease outbreaks have been increasing in frequency over the past few years. Perhaps even in the past two decades. From the period of the Spanish flu pandemic in 1918 to the HIV/AIDS epidemic around 1981, there were only six pandemics on record. Approximately one per decade. However, since the SARS outbreak of 2002, there has been an increased frequency of outbreaks. The records show that SARS was quickly followed by several recurring and new outbreaks. AVIAN flu, MARBURG virus, SWINE flu, MERS, a...
Source: GIDEON blog - Category: Databases & Libraries Authors: Tags: Case studies News Reviews Source Type: blogs
By Anis Chowdhury and Jomo Kwame SundaramSYDNEY and KUALA LUMPUR, May 26 2020 (IPS) With well over five million Covid-19 infections worldwide, and deaths exceeding 340,000, the race for an effective vaccine has accelerated since the SARS-Cov-2 virus was first identified as the culprit. Expecting to score politically from being ‘first’ to have a vaccine, US President Trump’s Operation Warp Speed promises to get 300 million doses to Americans by January, after the November polls, following several failed attempts to monopolize vaccines being developed by European companies. Anis Chowdhury More than 115 vac...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Aid Economy & Trade Featured Global Headlines Health Humanitarian Emergencies TerraViva United Nations Jomo Kwame Sundaram & Anis Chowdhury Source Type: news
“Everyone knows that pestilences have a way of recurring in the world,” observes Albert Camus in his novel The Plague. “Yet somehow we find it hard to believe in ones that crash down on our heads from a blue sky. There have been as many plagues as wars in history; yet plagues and wars always take people by surprise.” Camus was imagining a fictional outbreak of plague in 1948 in Oran, a port city in northwest Algeria. But at a time when the world is reeling from a very real microbial emergency sparked by the emergence of a novel coronavirus in Wuhan, central China, his observations are as pertinent a...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized 2019-nCoV health ideas Source Type: news
Publication date: 17 December 2019Source: Cell Reports, Volume 29, Issue 12Author(s): Raquel Muñoz-Moreno, Carles Martínez-Romero, Daniel Blanco-Melo, Christian V. Forst, Raffael Nachbagauer, Asiel Arturo Benitez, Ignacio Mena, Sadaf Aslam, Vinod Balasubramaniam, Ilseob Lee, Maryline Panis, Juan Ayllón, David Sachs, Man-Seong Park, Florian Krammer, Benjamin R. tenOever, Adolfo García-SastreSummaryInfluenza A viruses (IAVs) have a remarkable tropism in their ability to circulate in both mammalian and avian species. The IAV NS1 protein is a multifunctional virulence factor that inhibits the type I...
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: We have previously developed a recombinant avian avulavirus serotype 10 (rAAvV-10/HA) expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) as an emergency vaccine for poultry. rAAvV-10/HA can overcome the activity of the anti-AAvV-1 (Newcastle disease virus) antibody acquired by commercial chickens upon routine vaccination. Most chickens do not have the anti-AAvV-10 antibody, which could interfere with the vaccine efficacy. However, the vaccine efficacy of rAAvV-10/HA is not satisfactory in chickens even though it affords protection against an HPAIV chall...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 27 August 2019Source: Research in Veterinary ScienceAuthor(s): P. Guru Vishnu, T.K. Bhattacharya, Bharat Bhushan, Pushpendra Kumar, R.N. Chatterjee, Chandan Paswan, A. Rajendra Prasad, D. Divya, K. DushyanthAbstractThe present study was formulated to characterize and comprehend the molecular structural characteristics of ACTRIIB receptor in Aseel and control broiler (CB) populations. The full length coding sequence (1539 bp) of the receptor was amplified, cloned, sequenced and analyzed using bioinformatic tools. The physico chemical properties of protein and structural features like sec...
Source: Research in Veterinary Science - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
AbstractAt a cocktail party, we can broadly monitor the entire acoustic scene to detect important cues (e.g., our names being called, or the fire alarm going off), or selectively listen to a target sound source (e.g., a conversation partner). It has recently been observed that individual neurons in the avian field L (analog to the mammalian auditory cortex) can display broad spatial tuning to single targets and selective tuning to a target embedded in spatially distributed sound mixtures. Here, we describe a model inspired by these experimental observations and apply it to process mixtures of human speech sentences. This p...
Source: JARO - Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
In this study, β2∗ nAChR-containing receptors and lynx1 were identified using pull down studies from the mouse brain (Nissen et al., 2018), while ws-lynx1, SLURP-1 and SLURP-2 has been successfully mixed with human brain tissue to pull down multiple nAChR subtypes (Lyukmanova et al., 2016a,b; Thomsen et al., 2016). To support the in vivo interaction studies, a lynx1KO phenotype was ameliorated by crossing these mice into mutant mice null for α7 and β2 nAChR genes (Miwa et al., 2006). These in vivo studies provide an important biological context for the interactions observed within in vitro systems. ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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