Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity of the Offspring in Humans: a Systematic Review

AbstractPurpose of ReviewWe aimed to conduct a systematic review of studies exploring the relationship between prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning in the offspring in humans.Recent FindingsAnimal studies have demonstrated that PAE has long-term consequences in HPA axis activity in the offspring. Fewer studies have been conducted in humans.SummaryOur systematic review identified 9 studies including infants/toddlers (n = 6) and children/adolescents (n = 3). Cortisol responses to stress were only studied in infants/toddlers (3 studies: painful stressors; 3 studies: social stressors). In infants/toddlers, PAE seems to be associated with a blunted response to painful stressors whereas an enhanced cortisol response to social stress is observed ( only in boys). In children/adolescents, the normal cortisol circadian rhythm is altered in PAE participants with a FASD diagnosis, who show increased evening cortisol levels. These findings support the programming effects of alcohol on the HPA stress system.
Source: Current Addiction Reports - Category: Addiction Source Type: research

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AbstractThe purpose of this study was to describe the profile of individual, relational, and contextual resilience resources reported by youth with FASD and their caregivers and examine how these resources related to early childhood adversity, potential protective factors, and concurrent emotional and behavioral functioning. Nineteen youth with FASD (aged 13 to 23  years) and their caregivers (foster or adoptive parents) completed the Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-28), the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (BASC-2), and a detailed developmental history questionnaire. Youth with FASD were reported to...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - Category: Addiction Source Type: research
AbstractGlobal trends of increasing alcohol consumption among women of childbearing age, social acceptability of women ’s alcohol use, as well as recent changes in alcohol use patterns due to the COVID-19 pandemic may put many pregnancies at higher risk for prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), which can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Therefore, screening of pregnant women for alcohol use has become more important than ever and should be a public health priority. This narrative review presents the state of the science on various existing prenatal alcohol use screening strategies, including the clinical util...
Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction - Category: Addiction Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This systematic review serves to further promote the use of zebrafish as a model system to study the pathophysiological and behavioural consequences of early alcohol exposure.PMID:33913405 | DOI:10.2174/1570159X19666210428114317
Source: Current Neuropharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Source Type: research
Int J Dev Neurosci. 2021 Apr 10. doi: 10.1002/jdn.10112. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTFetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the most common cause of birth defects. The severe variations are in fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) but the most frequent cases are alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND), which are of a difficult diagnosis. ARND characteristics include impaired social behavior, anxiety and depression prevalence, cognitive deficits, and an increased chance for drug addiction. Here, we aimed to test whether early alcohol exposure leads to later alcohol preference. We hypothesize that early alcohol exposu...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Source Type: research
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