Broca’s area doesn’t care what you do (syntactically): it cares how you do it (actively)

Guest post by William Matchin:There are a few topics on this blog on the polemical spectrum that don’t happen to involve mirror neurons; one of them is the topic of Broca’s area and its putative role in syntax (see previous posts hereand here). Our recent paper published in Brain and Language – (Matchin, Sprouse &Hickok, 2014) - addresses this issue.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0093934X14001278The hypotheses regarding syntax and Broca’s area were never ludicrous - the neuropsychological data suggesting a close link between Broca’s area and the grammar are quite striking, as well as compelling. Rather, there are two arguments, empirical and methodological, against these hypotheses: (1, empirical) these hypotheses ignore the fact that patients with agrammatic production and sentence comprehension issues appear to have intact syntactic competence, as shown by their ability to perform remarkably well on acceptability judgments (Linebarger et al., 1983), and (2, methodological) syntactic manipulations are often conflated with processing mechanisms – as such, increased activation in neuroimaging studies for, say, center-embedded sentences over right-branching sentences (Stromswold et al., 1996) may very well reflect computations related to how the sentences are handled (e.g., working memory), and not their syntactic properties. This makes interpretation of these kinds of neuroimaging results difficult – are the effe...
Source: Talking Brains - Category: Neurologists Authors: Source Type: blogs

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We describe adult males and females and a nymph belonging to Linguatula serrata in Australia, based on light and scanning electron microscopies. In addition, 18S and Cox1 sequence data have also been provided and were compared with similar sequences in GenBank. Our specimens had identical 18S sequences and limited genetic distance in Cox1 region which fell within the intra-specific range observed or Linguatula spp. suggesting that they all belong to one species. Phylogenetic analyse showed that Australian specimens were grouped with L. serrata I Europe where the species was first found and described. A number of L. serrata...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Anterior segment optical coherence tomography can complement biomicroscopy, allowing for a better characterization of corneal involvement at presentation that can help in staging and providing useful prognostic information. PMID: 31962057 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Medica Portuguesa - Category: General Medicine Tags: Acta Med Port Source Type: research
AbstractTanqua tiara (von Linstow, 1879) Blanchard, 1904, recovered from the stomach of water monitor lizard,Varanus flavescens (Hardwicke and Gray, 1827), collected from the Dubrajpur town, Birbhum district of West Bengal, India, is redescribed with light as well as scanning electron microscopy. This species is characterised by presence of two large lateral pseudolabia followed by massive cephalic bulb. The inner surface of each pseudolabium is folded into five rounded tooth-like formations which fit into corresponding folds on adjacent pseudolabium. Spicules are equal and similar. Gubernaculum is absent. Caudal papillae ...
Source: Journal of Parasitic Diseases - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Nano EnergyAuthor(s): Xinming Fan, Guorong Hu, Bao Zhang, Xing Ou, Jiafeng Zhang, Wengao Zhao, Haiping Jia, Lianfeng Zou, Peng Li, Yong YangAbstractNi-rich layered oxides are extensively employed as a promising cathode material in lithium ion batteries (LIBs) due to their high energy density and reasonable cost. However, the hiearchical strcuture of secondary particles with grain boundaries inevitably induces the structural collapse and severe electrode/electrolyte interface parasitic reactions as the intergranular crack arises from the anisotropic shrink and expansi...
Source: Nano Energy - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
Abstract Striga is a parasitic weed that disperses easily, and its seeds can persist in the soil for many years, presenting long-term threats to food security. If SLs stimulate the seed germination of root parasitic weeds before planting, weeds will wither due to no host. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the mechanism of strigolactone (SL) signaling in Striga to reduce the impacts of this parasitic weed. Striga has eleven different kinds of HYPO-SENSITIVE to LIGHT (ShHTL) hydrolases. Different ShHTL hydrolases exhibit distinct responses to SLs, despite these ShHTLs exhibiting more than 60% sequence identity...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research
aes J Abstract Schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic infections in terms of its negative effects on public health and economics. Since praziquantel is currently the only drug available to treat schistosomiasis, there is an urgent need to identify new anthelmintic agents. Piplartine, also known as piperlongumine, is a biologically active alkaloid/amide from peppers that can be detected in high amounts in the roots of Piper tuberculatum. Previously, it has been shown to have in vitro schistosomicidal effects. However, its anthelmintic activity in an animal host has not been reported. In the present ...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2020Source: Molecular and Biochemical ParasitologyAuthor(s): Danielle E. Skinner, Anastas Popratiloff, Yousef N. Alrefaei, Victoria H. Mann, Gabriel Rinaldi, Paul J. BrindleyAbstractThe RNA helicase Vasa plays a pivotal role in the development of the germ line. To decipher the functional roles of vasa/PL10-like genes in the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni, we performed RNA interference followed by the analysis of the ovary in the adult female. Doubled stranded RNA targeting the schistosome vasa-like gene Smvlg1 reduced the volume of the ovary. Changes in morphology of the...
Source: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications are fundamental for the phenotypic plasticity of insects during their interaction with the environment. In response to environmental cues, the methylation pattern in DNA is dynamically remodeled to achieve an epigenetic control of gene expression. DNA methylation is the focus of study in insects for its evolutionarily conserved character; however, there is scant knowledge about the epigenetic regulation in vector mosquitoes, especially during their infection by parasites. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the participation...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Authors: Morrow JJ, Elowsky C Abstract Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to examine archaeoparasitological specimens from coprolites associated with La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos (CMC) located near present-day Durango, Mexico. The eggs for 4 different types of parasites recovered from CMC coprolites were imaged using CLSM to assist with identification efforts. While some of the parasite eggs recovered from CMC coprolites were readily identified using standard light microscopy (LM), CLSM provided useful data for more challenging identifications by highlighting subtle morphological features and e...
Source: Korean Journal of Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Tags: Korean J Parasitol Source Type: research
This study demonstrates, for the first time, that parasitic trematode juveniles can trigger NET formation. PMID: 31917163 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Experimental Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Authors: Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
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