Dear crowd: please crowd-solve the question "What can be or should be the relation between linguistics and neuroscience?"

Dave Embick and I just wrote a paper (for LCN) in which we speculate further about the possible relations between linguistics and neuroscience (as in Poeppel, D. and Embick, D. (2005). The relation between linguistics and neuroscience. In A. Cutler (ed.), Twenty-First Century Psycholinguistics: Four Cornerstones. Lawrence Erlbaum; and Poeppel, D. (2012). The maps problem and the mapping problem: Two challenges for a cognitive neuroscience of speech and language. Cogn Neuropsychol, 29(1-2):34-55. PDFs available on my site.) In particular, we discuss what we might aspire to, i.e. what the endgame might look like - or should look like. We are interested in reactions and advice of any kind. In some sense, we'd like to crowd-source the issue, i.e. collect examples of true success stories, spectacular failures, and so on ...But: the bar is *high*. For example, a success might be something akin to the explanatory, mechanistic, causal understanding we have for sound localization in the barn owl (e.g. here). A failure might be akin to the case of C. elegans, a creature for which we know the genome and every neural ganglion and the entire wiring diagram but we cannot even figure out why the damn worm turns left or right. What, then, is a useful relation between computational-representational (CR) theories (as developed in linguistics, psycholinguistics, computer science, etc.) and neurobiological (NB) infrastructure? In the review process, we got reactions across the spectrum, as per u...
Source: Talking Brains - Category: Neurologists Authors: Source Type: blogs

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Authors: Wang M, Li J, Zheng Y Abstract Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) acts as a regulator of many biological processes and plays an essential role in preventing oxidation, inflammation, and fibrosis. In the past 20 years, there has been increasing research on the role of Nrf2 and oxidative stress in human glaucoma, including the roles of inflammation, trabecular meshwork cells, retinal ganglion cells, Tenon's capsule, antioxidants, fibrosis, and noncoding RNAs. Studies have shown that the upregulation of Nrf2 can reduce damage from oxidative stress in the trabecular meshwork cells and the retin...
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
Purpose of review Optic neuropathies refer to a collection of diseases in which retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the specialized neuron of the retina whose axons make up the optic nerve, are selectively damaged. Blindness secondary to optic neuropathies is irreversible as RGCs do not have the capacity for self-renewal and have a limited capacity for self-repair. Numerous strategies are being developed to either prevent further RGC degeneration or replace the cells that have degenerated. In this review, we aim to discuss known limitations to regeneration in central nervous system (CNS), followed by a discussion of previous,...
Source: Current Opinion in Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Heather E. Moss Source Type: research
ConclusionsIn summary, miR-223 plays a vital role in RGCs by regulating HSP-70 expression, and the new therapeutic strategy might potentially contribute to benefit glaucoma treatment.
Source: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
AbstractIntroductionTo examine the correlation of pulmonary functions and neutrophyle/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) with optic coherence tomography findings in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).MethodsFifty ‐five COPD (110 eyes) and 48 control cases (96 eyes) were enrolled. COPD patients were grouped as Group 1 (mild‐moderate) and Group 2 (severe) according to GOLD classification. Subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT), ganglion cell‐inner plexiform layer (GCIP) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) analysis by SD‐OCT were performed in follow up. NLR was calculated by blood cell count.ResultsInferior RNFL a...
Source: The Clinical Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of the spirocyclopiperazinium salt compound LXM-15 on rheumatoid arthritis induced by complete Freund ’s adjuvant (CFA) in rats and investigate the underlying mechanism. The results showed that LXM-15 significantly inhibited the paw edema and ankle swelling, and alleviated the mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia responses in the CFA rats. The histopathological results revealed that LXM-1 5 ameliorated the infiltration of inflammatory cells and joint destruction. The micro-CT scan showed that LXM-15 alleviated bone erosion and increased BMD in the ankle joints ...
Source: Inflammation - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Screening capabilities of the OCT, GDx and HRT were rather similar. The accuracy of all evaluated parameters was only moderate and thus screening with these parameters alone is not reliable. PMID: 31949097 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The British Journal of Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Br J Ophthalmol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 January 2020Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of DiseaseAuthor(s): Gabriel Nascimento-dos-Santos, Eduardo de-Souza-Ferreira, Rafael Lani, Caroline Coelho de Faria, Victor Guedes Araujo, Leandro Coelho Teixeira-Pinheiro, Taliane de Souza Vasconcelos, Thaís Gonçalo Leandro, Marcelo Felippe Santiago, Rafael Linden, Antonio Galina, Hilda Petrs-SilvaAbstractMitochondrial dysfunctions are linked to a series of neurodegenerative human conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, optic neuropathies, and glaucoma. Recently, a series of stud...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Basis of Disease - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 January 2020Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Khushwant S. Yadav, Sushmita Sharma, Vaishali Y. LondheAbstractGlaucoma, a neurodegenerative disorder is characterized by damage of ganglion cells of retina and also its axons. The manner of progression of disease and retinal ganglion cells death in glaucoma still remains unknown and hence many mechanisms are put forward to understand the disease. Clinical developments have suggested that in every single patient decreasing intraocular pressure (IOP) is not the solution to prevent glaucoma which suggests on the fact that there are other risk f...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
In this study, we investigated the effect of sst5 activation on outward K+ currents in acutely isolated rat retinal ganglion cells using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Extracellular application of L-817,818, a specific sst5 agonist, significantly reduced outward K+ currents which was mainly the 4-aminopyridine and glybenclamide sensitive current components, but not the tetraethylammonium-sensitive one. The L-817,818 effect was mediated by sst5 since the suppression was eliminated when intracellular dialysis of the G-protein inhibitor GDP-β-S or extracellular application of the sst5 antagonist BIM-23056. Intracellu...
Source: NeuroReport - Category: Neurology Tags: Cellular, Molecular and Developmental Neuroscience Source Type: research
Thermal stimulation of various parts of the skin inHirudo medicinalis increases the frequency of spontaneous rhythmic excitation of Retzius neurons in leech ganglia. It was shown that the frequency of spontaneous rhythmic excitation of Retzius cells in the segmental ganglion increases only in response to thermal stimulation and returns to initial values upon cooling. This effect was also detected in neurons that are not directly connected by nerve fibers with the particular skin area. Changes in the frequency of spontaneous rhythmic excitation of Retzius cells in the segmental ganglion were observed during thermal stimulat...
Source: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine - Category: Biology Source Type: research
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