Embodied or Symbolic? Who cares!

I still don't understand the hype over embodied cognition. It's too abstract a concept for me, I guess.  I need more grounding in the real world. (Am I getting it?) So let's consider a real world example of neural computation. For the record, this is partially excerpted/paraphrased from a discussion in The Myth of Mirror Neurons. Sound localization in the barn owl is fairly well-understood in neurocomputational terms.  Inputs from the two ears converge in the brainstem's nucleus laminaris with a "delay line" architecture as in the figure:   Given this arrangement, the neurons (circles) on which the left and right ear signals will converge simultaneously will depend on the time difference between excitation of the two ears. If both ears are stimulated simultaneously (sound directly in front), convergence will happen in the middle of the delay line. If the sound stimulates the left ear first, convergence will happen farther to the right in this schematic (left ear stimulation arrives sooner allowing its signal to get further down the line before meeting the right ear signal). And vise versa if right ear stimulation arrives sooner. This delay line architecture basically sets up an array of coincidence detectors in which the position of the cell that detects the coincidence represents information: the difference in stimulation time at the two ears and therefore the location of the sound source. Then all you have to do is plug the...
Source: Talking Brains - Category: Neurologists Authors: Source Type: blogs

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Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Molecular and Cellular EndocrinologyAuthor(s): Ronald J. van der Sluis, Menno HoekstraAbstractAdrenal-derived glucocorticoids mediate the physiological response to stress. Chronic disturbances in glucocorticoid homeostasis, i.e. in Addison's and Cushing's disease patients, predispose to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Here we review preclinical and clinical findings regarding the relation between changes in plasma glucocorticoid levels and the atherosclerosis extent. It appears that, although the altered glucocorticoid function can in most...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
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Source: Gynecological Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: Gynecological Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 January 2020Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical AnalysisAuthor(s): Alexandre Goyon, Peter Yehl, Kelly ZhangABSTRACTMarketed therapies in the pharmaceutical landscape are rapidly evolving and getting more diverse. Small molecule medicines have dominated in the past while antibodies have grown dramatically in recent years. However, the failure of traditional small and large molecules in accessing certain targets has led to increased R&D efforts to develop alternative modalities. Therapeutic oligonucleotides (ONs) can accurately be directed against their ribonucleic acid (RNA...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThese results demonstrate that a novel proton-coupled organic cation antiporter plays a predominant role in the blood to brain influx of AC, MA and HA at the BBB, and thus affect the safety of Aconitum species.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
This study investigated the cardioprotective effect of vitexin against MIRI and its possible mechanism. Isolated SD rat hearts were subjected to MIRI in a Langendorff perfusion system, and H9c2 cells were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) in vitro. Ex vivo experiments showed improved left ventricular function and reduced infarct size in the vitexin group. Transmission electron microscopy showed that I/R caused outer mitochondrial membrane rupture, cristae disappearance and vacuolation, while vitexin reduced mitochondrial damage and ultimately reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In vitro, vitexin protected H9c2 cells fr...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur study demonstrates the antitumor effect of IL-24 on endometrial cancer and shows that IL-24 may be a promising therapeutic gene for endometrial cancer gene therapy.Graphical abstract
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Source: Core Evidence - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Core Evidence Source Type: research
Contributors : Diane M Ward ; Alexandra SeguinSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Mus musculusHepatocyte-specific loss of Slc25a37 (Mitoferrin1) in Mitoferrin2-/- mice did not affect animal viability or liver size suggesting that there must be alternative hepatocyte mitochondrial iron importers that function in the absence of Mitoferrins.
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Mus musculus Source Type: research
This study aimed to explore the link between block copolymers’ interfacial properties and nanoscale carrier formation and found out the influence of length ratio on these characters to optimize drug delivery system. A library of diblock copolymers of PEG-PCL and triblock copolymers with additional PEI (PEG-PCL-PEI) were synthesized. Subsequently, a systematic isothermal investigation was performed to explore molecular arrangements of copolymers at air/water interface. Then, structural properties and drug encapsulation in self-assembly were investigated with DLS, SLS and TEM. We found the additional hydrogen bond in t...
Source: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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