Development of a new method for decoding viral genes

(The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo) A research team led by Professor Yasushi Kawaguchi of the Institute of Medical Science, the University of Tokyo, developed a new decoding method for viral genes that can easily and quickly obtain even non-canonical genetic information. Using this new decoding method, they identified nine novel proteins encoded by herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1) and found that one of them, piUL49, is a pathogenic factor that specifically controls the onset of herpes encephalitis .
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

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eacute; Bourhy The environment of the central nervous system (CNS) represents a double-edged sword in the context of viral infections. On the one hand, the infectious route for viral pathogens is restricted via neuroprotective barriers; on the other hand, viruses benefit from the immunologically quiescent neural environment after CNS entry. Both the herpes simplex virus (HSV) and the rabies virus (RABV) bypass the neuroprotective blood–brain barrier (BBB) and successfully enter the CNS parenchyma via nerve endings. Despite the differences in the molecular nature of both viruses, each virus uses retrograde tra...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
erson A number of viruses, including Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), West Nile Virus (WNV), La Crosse Virus (LACV), Zika virus (ZIKV) and Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), have the ability to gain access to the central nervous system (CNS) and cause severe neurological disease or death. Although encephalitis cases caused by these viruses are generally rare, there are relatively few treatment options available for patients with viral encephalitis other than palliative care. Many of these viruses directly infect neurons and can cause neuronal death. Thus, there is the need for the identification of useful therapeutic com...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Communication Source Type: research
This study aimed to assess the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and outcomes in patients with human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), human herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) CNS infections. We identified cases of HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV CNS infections and reviewed their clinical and laboratory characteristics. The study population was drawn from patients with HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV polymerase chain reaction positivity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) who visited Pusan National University Hospital between 2010 and 2018. During the 9-year study period, a total of 727 CSF samples were ...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Observational Study Source Type: research
We report a case of a three-week-old girl with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) encephalitis with exclusive bilateral corticospinal and frontal opercular involvement, which remained undiagnosed and untreated until three months of age. Neuroimaging upon presentation to the emergency room demonstrates a highly suggestive pattern of severe neonatal CNS HSV-2 infection which followed the natural history on subsequent imaging, highlighting the importance of emergency neuroimaging as well as having a high index of suspicion for making the diagnosis.
Source: Emergency Radiology - Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research
ConclusionsAnti-NMDAr encephalitis can be the culprit behind a new-onset of psychosis in pregnancy. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial.
Source: International Journal of Emergency Medicine - Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research
No abstract available
Source: The Neurologist - Category: Neurology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research
In conclusion the preclinical studies of the novel HPI compounds showed superior efficacy in comparison to the current standard HSV treatment represented by VACV with respect to the survival according humane endpoints, the clinical score and virus load in lungs and brains. Thus, candidates of this new drug class are promising antivirals of HSV infections and further translation into clinical trials is warranted.PMID:34666109 | DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2021.105190
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Source Type: research
gel Kalinke Viral encephalitis is a rare but serious syndrome. In addition to DNA-encoded herpes viruses, such as herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus, RNA-encoded viruses from the families of Flaviviridae, Rhabdoviridae and Paramyxoviridae are important neurotropic viruses. Whereas in the periphery, the role of Toll-like receptors (TLR) during immune stimulation is well understood, TLR functions within the CNS are less clear. On one hand, TLRs can affect the physiology of neurons during neuronal progenitor cell differentiation and neurite outgrowth, whereas under conditions of infection, the complex int...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
e Henrik Zetterberg Tomas Bergström Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) can infect the central nervous system (CNS) with dire consequences; in children and adults, HSV-1 may cause focal encephalitis, while HSV-2 causes meningitis. In neonates, both viruses can cause severe, disseminated CNS infections with high mortality rates. Here, we differentiated human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) towards cortical neurons for infection with clinical CNS strains of HSV-1 or HSV-2. Progenies from both viruses were produced at equal quantities in iPSCs, neuroprogenitors and cortical neurons. HSV-1 and HSV-...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe variant SHV1 can cause a new type of human viral encephalitis, characterized by acute, fulminating, and catastrophic central nervous system infection. Rapid progressive respiratory failure and extensive lesions of deep gray matter nuclei might be indicators to poor prognosis. No approved treatments for the encephalitis are available, but it is possible to diagnose encephalitis quickly by mNGS.
Source: Neurological Sciences - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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