Serum sCTLA-4 level is not associated with type 1 diabetes or the coexistence of autoantibodies in children and adolescent patients from the southern region of Saudi Arabia

ConclusionDespite the previous findings of high sCTLA-4 levels in autoimmune diseases, serum levels of sCTLA-4 are not significantly different between T1DM patients and non-diabetic adolescents. Furthermore, we did not observe any association with autoantibody presence, glycemic control, or disease duration.
Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Altern Ther Health Med. 2021 Sep 24:AT6958. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTType 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease leading to an insulin deficiency that causes hyperglycemia and associated symptoms. It is considered the most common type of diabetes, with the 4Ts (going to the toilet a lot, being really thirsty, feeling more tired than usual, losing weight or looking thinner than usual) being the most prevalent symptoms. Non-specific signs and symptoms are also possible, and delaying or missing the diagnosis can have a devastating effect on a child's health. Children with a definitive diagnosis of diabetes often requi...
Source: Molecular Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Source Type: research
Prim Care Diabetes. 2021 Sep 20:S1751-9918(21)00174-1. doi: 10.1016/j.pcd.2021.09.002. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAIMS: We aimed to demonstrate the relationship between parental consanguinity and positive family histories of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and autoimmune disease and the development of T1DM among children in Saudi Arabia.METHODS: This was a cross-sectional case-control study. In total, 192 patients and 188 healthy controls were enrolled from the Pediatric Diabetes Clinic at King Salman Military Hospital between January 2000 and December 2010. Detailed patients' data recorded while distributing questionna...
Source: Primary Care - Category: Primary Care Authors: Source Type: research
J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2021 Aug 18. doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2021.2021.0139. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIt is well-known that in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D), the frequency of celiac disease (CD) is increased due to unclear mechanisms including autoimmune injury as well as shared genetic predisposition. Although histopathologic examination is gold standard, avoiding unnecessary endoscopy is crucial. Therefore, from the perspective of the clinicians and patients' families, the diagnosis of celiac disease remains challenging. With these in mind, a joint working group (Type 1 Diabetes and Celiac Disease Jo...
Source: JCRPE Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Gene therapy has revealed prodigious aptitude in the management of autoimmune diseases in various animal studies, but further investigation is essential to combat the limitations associated with it and before employing it on humans.PMID:34530709 | DOI:10.2174/1566523221666210916113609
Source: Current Gene Therapy - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research
Diabetes, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose and other complications, has undefined causes and multiple risk factors, including inappropriate diet, unhealthy lifestyles, and genetic predisposition. The two most distinguished types of diabetes are type 1 and type 2 diabetes, resulting from the autoimmune impairment of insulin-generating pancreatic β cells and insulin insensitivity, respectively. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), a cohort of RNAs with little transcriptional value, have been found to exert substantial importance in epigenetic and posttranscriptional modulation of gene expression such as mess...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
In this study, we show that a lipophilic modification at the N-terminal end of CD4+ epitopes (lipo-peptides) dramatically improves peptide Ag presentation. We designed amphiphilic lipo-peptides to efficiently target APCs in the lymph nodes by binding and trafficking with endogenous albumin. Additionally, we show that lipophilic modification anchors the peptide into the membranes of APCs, enabling a bivalent cell-surface Ag presentation. The s.c. injected lipo-peptide accumulates in the APCs in the lymph node, enhances the potency and duration of peptide Ag presentation by APCs, and induces Ag-specific immune tolerance that...
Source: Journal of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsWe propose a hypothesis, supported by emerging genetic and functional immune studies, which states a loss of proper SIRP:CD47 signaling may result in increased lymphocyte activation and cytotoxicity and enhanced β-cell destruction. Thus, we present several novel therapeutic strategies for modulation of SIRPs and CD47 to intervene in T1D.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractType 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or insulin-dependent diabetes is an autoimmune disease that may pose life-threatening situations to individuals. In most cases, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) promotes killing of islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, which harbour insulin-producing beta cells. The trigger for autoimmune attack is still unclear; therefore, identifying and targeting candidate genes are imperative to hinder its deleterious effects. In the present study, we focused on identification of new candidate genes for T1DM. For our study, we exclusively selected immune-related genes as they play a crucial role in...
Source: Immunologic Research - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Diabetes is a complex disease that affects over 400 million people worldwide. The life-long insulin injections and continuous blood glucose monitoring required in type 1 diabetes (T1D) represent a tremendous clinical and economic burdens that urges the need for a medical solution. Pancreatic islet transplantation holds great promise in the treatment of T1D; however, the difficulty in regulating post-transplantation immune reactions to avoid both allogenic and autoimmune graft rejection represent a bottleneck in the field of islet transplantation. Cell replacement strategies have been performed in hepatic, intramuscular, om...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
AbstractPurposeProtein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) is an inhibitor of T-cell activation, regulating intracellular signal transduction and thereby being implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). The exact molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to quantitate DNA methylation within thePTPN22 gene promoter in children and adolescents with AITD and healthy controls.Methods60 Patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), 25 patients with HT and type 1 diabetes (HT  + T1D), 9 patients with Graves’ disease (GD) and 55 h...
Source: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
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