Nucleus basalis of Meynert revisited: anatomy, history and differential involvement in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease
Abstract It has been well established that neuronal loss within the cholinergic nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) correlates with cognitive decline in dementing disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Friedrich Lewy first observed his eponymous inclusion bodies in the nbM of postmortem brain tissue from patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and cell loss in this area can be at least as extensive as that seen in AD. There has been confusion with regard to the terminology and exact localisation of the nbM within the human basal forebrain for decades due to the diffuse and broad structure of this “nucleus”. Also, while topographical projections from the nbM have been mapped out in subhuman primates, no direct clinicopathological correlations between subregional nbM and cortical pathology and specific cognitive profile decline have been performed in human tissue. Here, we review the evolution of the term nbM and the importance of standardised nbM sampling for neuropathological studies. Extensive review of the literature suggests that there is a caudorostral pattern of neuronal loss within the nbM in AD brains. However, the findings in PD are less clear due to the limited number of studies performed. Given the differing neuropsychiatric and cognitive deficits in Lewy body-associated dementias (PD dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies) as compared to AD, we hypothesise that a different pattern of neuronal loss will be found in the nbM of Lewy b...
DEMENTIA can be tricky to pick up on in the earliest stages. However, mounting research indicates a certain time of day when symptoms may be more noticeable. What time do you need to be on full alert?
CONCLUSIONS: Individually customized, multicomponent exercise programs lead to improved levels of cognitive function, depression, and quality of life, especially among those who are more frail. PMID: 33029968 [PubMed]
Conclusion: SLT induces relaxation of rat isolated tail artery through endothelium-independent mechanisms. The SLT-induced vasodilatation appeared to be jointly meditated by blockages of extracellular Ca2+ influx via receptor-gated and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and inhibition of the release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. PMID: 33029174 [PubMed]
In conclusion, in this database study of elderly patients coded with NAFLD no independent association with incident dementia was detected. Risk assessment regarding dementia in patients with NAFLD should be carried out in the same way as for metabolic burdened patients.
Publication date: Available online 8 October 2020Source: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck DiseasesAuthor(s): H.J. Jung, J.Y. Lee, Y.-S. Choi, H.G. Choi, J.H. Wee
FRIDAY, Oct. 9, 2020 -- Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are more likely to develop vascular dementia and nonvascular dementia compared with controls without diabetes, according to a study presented at the annual meeting of the European...
CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide a novel understanding of ARND prevalence in a previously understudied area, although the prevalence estimate is conservative and should be interpreted cautiously for reasons discussed. Findings also highlight an inconsistency between diagnoses presented in nosological systems (e.g., International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision) and those used in practice and therefore a need to evaluate novel diagnostic conceptualizations of alcohol-related neurocognitive impairment. PMID: 33028471 [PubMed - in process]
Dementia risk did not differ by general, regional anesthesia in seniors undergoing elective surgery
This report summarizes the discussion and recommendations from a working group convened by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke to evaluate the state of the field in VCID research, identify research priorities, and foster collaborations. As discussed in this report, advances in understanding the biological mechanisms of VCID across the wide spectrum of pathologies, chronic systemic comorbidities, and other risk factors may lead to potential prevention and new treatment strategies to decrease the burden of dementia. Better understanding of the social d...
Conditions: Pain; Opioid Use; Dementia; Unconscious; Ventilator Lung Intervention: Device: PMD200 Sponsor: Medasense Biometrics Ltd Not yet recruiting