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Keeping the Kraken asleep

(University of Veterinary Medicine -- Vienna) Despite enormous progress in cancer therapy, many patients still relapse because their treatment addresses the symptoms of the disease rather than the cause, the so-called stem cells. Work in the group of Veronika Sexl at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna has given a tantalizing clue to a solution. In the current issue of Blood, the scientists report that the cell-cycle kinase CDK6 is required for activation of the stem cells responsible for causing leukemia.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: Global & Universal Source Type: news

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Abstract Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) describes an asymptomatic expansion of blood cells descended from a single hematopoietic stem cell. Recent studies have shown that CH increases in frequency with aging, and is often driven by somatic mutations in genes that are recurrently mutated in hematologic malignancies. When CH is associated with a mutation in a leukemia-associated gene at a variant allele frequency of 0.02 or greater, it is termed "clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential" (CHIP).  CHIP has a 0.5-1% risk per year of progression to hematological neoplasia, and increases both all-cause ...
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
imann, Andreas Trumpp, Bernd Dörken, Johannes Zuber, Hinrich Gronemeyer, Michael Hummel, Gunnar Dittmar, Soyoung Lee &Clemens A. Schmitt Cellular senescence is a stress-responsive cell-cycle arrest program that terminates the further expansion of (pre-)malignant cells. Key signalling components of the senescence machinery, such as p16INK4a, p21CIP1 and p53, as well as trimethylation of lysine 9 at histone H3 (H3K9me3), also operate as critical regulators of stem-cell functions (which are collectively termed ‘stemness’). In cancer cells, a gain of stemness may have profound i...
Source: Nature - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Letter Source Type: research
We describe the clinicopathologic features of 17 patients who had a hematologic malignancy of various types, were treated, and subsequently developed a lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). There were 10 men and 7 women with a median age of 59 years (range, 36 to 83 y). The primary hematologic neoplasms included: 5 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, 3 plasma cell myeloma, 2 acute monoblastic leukemia, and 1 case each of mixed-phenotype acute leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, splenic marginal zone lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia, and peripheral...
Source: The American Journal of Surgical Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
AbstractImmunocompromised patients are at high risk of invasive fungal infections (IFI), in particular those with haematological malignancies undergoing remission-induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and recipients of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT). Despite the development of new treatment options in the past decades, IFI remains a concern due to substantial morbidity and mortality in these patient populations. In addition, the increasing use of new immune modulating drugs in cancer therapy has opened an entirely new spectrum of at risk periods. ...
Source: Annals of Hematology - Category: Hematology Source Type: research
Conclusions: despite transplantation being a complex and aggressive treatment, it can be noticed that patients generally perceive their quality of life as satisfactory throughout the therapeutic process. The findings of the study show that a significant portion (69% of patients) recover their quality of life after the first six months of treatment.
Source: Texto e Contexto - Enfermagem - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Authors: Han XJ, Shi SL, Wei YF, Jiang LP, Guo MY, Wu HL, Wan YY Abstract Leukemia is a type of hematopoietic stem cell malignant cloned disease with high mortality. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is one of the most common treatments for leukemia. Similar to other chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin resistance has become a serious issue in cancer therapy. In the present study, we investigated the role of mitochondrial dynamics in the antineoplastic activity of cisplatin in murine leukemia L1210 cells. Firstly, the L1210 cell line resistant to cisplatin (L1210/DDP) was established. Compared to its parental cell line, t...
Source: Oncology Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Rep Source Type: research
In this study we demonstrate the use of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based epigenome editing to alter cell response to inflammatory environments by repressing inflammatory cytokine cell receptors, specifically TNFR1 and IL1R1. This has applications for many inflammatory-driven diseases. It could be applied for arthritis or to therapeutic cells that are being delivered to inflammatory environments that need to be protected from inflammation." In chronic back pain, for example, slipped or herniated discs are a result of damaged tissue when inflammation causes cells to create ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In this study, we report that KIR2DS2 reporter cells recognize a ligand expressed by cancer cell lines. All cancer targets recognized by KIR2DS2 were also recognized by KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL3 reporters. Trogocytosis of membrane proteins from the cancer targets was observed with responding reporter cells, indicating the formation of KIR2DS2 ligand-specific immunological synapses. HLA-C typing of target cells showed that KIR2DS2 recognition was independent of the HLA C1 or C2 group, whereas targets cells that were only recognized by KIR2DL3 expressed C1 group alleles. Anti-HLA class I Abs blocked KIR2DL3 responses toward C1-exp...
Source: Journal of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Immunol Source Type: research
We report here the safety, efficacy, and correlative studies of apheresis product, KTE-C19, and in vivo effects from the phase 1 portion of ZUMA-1. As of August 2016, the median follow-up time was 9 months. Nine patients were enrolled in the study. Two patients experienced adverse events due to disease progression, discontinued the study, and never received KTE-C19. Seven patients received conditioning chemotherapy and KTE-C19. Patients ranged from 29 to 69 years of age and had received two to four prior lines of therapy. Three were refractory to second-line or later lines of therapy, and four patients had relapsed ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
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Source: Cytometry Part B: Clinical Cytometry - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
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