Streptogramins for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens.

Streptogramins for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2020 Oct 08;: Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely type A and type B streptogramins, which exert a rapid bactericidal activity against a wide range of Gram-positive bacteria (including methicillin-resistant staphylococci and vancomycin-resistant enterococci). Several mechanisms of resistance have been identified in staphylococci and enterococci but the prevalence of streptogramin resistance among clinical isolates remains very low. Even if only a few randomized clinical trials have been conducted, the efficacy of pristinamycin has been largely demonstrated with an extensive use for 50 years in France and some African countries. Despite its effectiveness in the treatment of severe Gram-positive bacterial infections demonstrated in several studies and the low rate of reported r...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research

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The spread of drug-resistant bacteria is considered a global public health problem. According to the World Health Organization (World Health Organization [Internet], 2014), it is anticipated that around 10 million people could die from infections with drug-resistant bacteria by 2050. In Japan, in addition to drug-resistant Gram-positive cocci such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, healthcare-associated infections caused by drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli, including multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter still rem...
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractTo identify the molecular characteristics of Gram-positive cocci isolated from blood cultures and clinical outcome among critically ill patients. This retrospective study was conducted in the general intensive care unit of the University General Hospital of Patras, Greece, during a 5-year period (2012 –2016). All adult patients with a Gram-positive BSI were included. PCR was applied to identifymecA gene (staphylococci);vanA,vanB, andvanC genes (enterococci). Linezolid-resistantS. epidermidis, MRSA, and VRE were further typed by multilocus sequence typing. Mutations in region V of 23S rDNA and ribosomal protei...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 November 2019Source: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and GastroenterologyAuthor(s): Manon Allaire, Jean-François Cadranel, Thi Thu Nga Nguyen, Armand Garioud, Honore Zougmore, Ratmony Heng, Claire Perignon, Isabelle Ollivier-Hourmand, Thông DaoSummaryPatients with cirrhosis are prone to develop bacterial infections, which consist in one of the major precursors of Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure (ACLF) and are responsible for a high mortality rate. In recent years, the management of bacterial infections in patients with cirrhosis has become increasingly complicated due to ...
Source: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: We observed significantly higher isolations of E-ESPAKE MDR strains in patients with hematological malignancies. PMID: 29738654 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Salud Publica de Mexico - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: Salud Publica Mex Source Type: research
Conclusions These findings indicate that linezolid has an excellent activity against clinical drug resistant Gram-positive isolates in Iran. Constant monitoring and surveillance of linezolid MIC distribution allows the researchers to assess and detect gradual upward MIC drifts.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Oxazolidinones are a novel class of synthetic antibacterial agents that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis. Here, we synthesized and tested a series of oxazolidinone compounds containing cyclic amidrazone. Among these compounds, we further investigated the antibacterial activities of LCB01-0648 against drug-susceptible or resistant Gram-positive cocci in comparison with those of six reference compounds. LCB01-0648 showed the most potent antimicrobial activities against clinically isolated Gram-positive bacteria. Against the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative sta...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Conclusion From our findings we concluded that the rate of isolation of MRSA among all the strains of S. aureus isolated from clinical samples was very high. However, none of the MRSA strains were found to be vancomycin intermediate-sensitive or vancomycin-resistant.
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
[Resistance to "last resort" antibiotics in Gram-positive cocci: The post-vancomycin era]. Biomedica. 2014 Apr;34 Suppl 1:191-208 Authors: Rincón S, Panesso D, Díaz L, Carvajal LP, Reyes J, Munita JM, Arias CA Abstract New therapeutic alternatives have been developed in the last years for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive infections. Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are considered a therapeutic challenge due to failures and lack of reliable antimicrobial options. Despite concerns r...
Source: Biomedica : Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud - Category: Global & Universal Tags: Biomedica Source Type: research
Conclusion There is an urgent need to employ strategies that will slow the development of resistance to the current armamentarium.
Source: Apollo Medicine - Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research
Abstract Gram-positive cocci are the most frequent aetiology of community and nosocomially bacterial acquired infections. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant gram-positive bacteria is increasing and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. New antibiotics will be available in the European market during the next months. This revision is focused on lipoglycopeptides, new cephalosporins active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the new oxazolidinone, tedizolid. The purpose of this review is to describe their in vitro activity, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics, ...
Source: Current Opinion in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Opin Pharmacol Source Type: research
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